Phenomenology and epidemiology of panic disorder.

University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Tulsa, OK, USA.
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.53). 21(2):95-102.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Panic disorder is a common and severe psychiatric disorder. The estimated current prevalence rate for panic disorder is 1% to 2% of the adult population. Panic disorder is commonly accompanied by major depression, substance use disorders, and other anxiety disorders. Female gender, low socioeconomic status, and anxious childhood temperament are common risk factors for panic disorder. Panic disorder can produce marked distress and impairment and is associated with significant suicide risk. Panic disorder appears to increase risk for all-cause mortality because it may increase risk for cardiovascular disease.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study prospectively examined the natural clinical course of six anxiety disorders over 7 years of follow-up in individuals with personality disorders (PDs) and/or major depressive disorder. Rates of remission, relapse, new episode onset and chronicity of anxiety disorders were examined for specific associations with PDs. Participants were 499 patients with anxiety disorders in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study, who were assessed with structured interviews for psychiatric disorders at yearly intervals throughout 7 years of follow-up. These data were used to determine probabilities of changes in disorder status for social phobia (SP), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder and panic disorder with agoraphobia. Estimated remission rates for anxiety disorders in this study group ranged from 73% to 94%. For those patients who remitted from an anxiety disorder, relapse rates ranged from 34% to 67%. Rates for new episode onsets of anxiety disorders ranged from 3% to 17%. Specific PDs demonstrated associations with remission, relapse, new episode onsets and chronicity of anxiety disorders. Associations were identified between schizotypal PD with course of SP, PTSD and GAD; avoidant PD with course of SP and OCD; obsessive-compulsive PD with course of GAD, OCD, and agoraphobia; and borderline PD with course of OCD, GAD and panic with agoraphobia. Findings suggest that specific PD diagnoses have negative prognostic significance for the course of anxiety disorders underscoring the importance of assessing and considering PD diagnoses in patients with anxiety disorders.
    Psychological Medicine 05/2011; 41(5):1019-28. DOI:10.1017/S0033291710001777 · 5.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the adequacy of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy received by primary care patients with anxiety disorders over up to 5 years of follow-up. Five hundred thirty-four primary care patients at 15 US sites, who screened positive for anxiety symptoms, were assessed for anxiety disorders. Those meeting anxiety disorder criteria were offered participation and interviewed again at six and 12 months postintake, and yearly thereafter for up to 5 years. We utilized existing definitions of appropriate pharmacotherapy and created definitions of potentially adequate psychotherapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). At intake, of 534 primary care participants with anxiety disorders, 19% reported receiving appropriate pharmacotherapy and 14% potentially adequate CBT. Overall, 28% of participants reported receiving potentially adequate anxiety treatment, whether pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both. Over up to five years of follow-up, appropriate pharmacotherapy was received by 60% and potentially adequate CBT by 36% of the sample. Examined together, 69% of participants received any potentially adequate treatment during the follow-up period. Over the course of follow-up, primary care patients with MDD, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and with medicaid/medicare were more likely to receive appropriate anxiety treatment. Ethnic minority members were less likely to receive potentially adequate care. Potentially adequate anxiety treatment was rarely received by primary care patients with anxiety disorders at intake. Encouragingly, rates improved over the course of the study. However, potentially adequate CBT remained much less utilized than pharmacotherapy and racial-ethnic minority members were less likely to received care, suggesting much room for improved dissemination of quality treatment.
    Depression and Anxiety 05/2014; 31(5). DOI:10.1002/da.22209 · 4.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depression is associated with an inter-hemispheric imbalance; a hyperactive right-hemisphere (RH) and a relatively hypoactive left-hemisphere (LH). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms which can explain why depression is associated with a RH dominance remain elusive. This article points out the potential links between functional cerebral asymmetries and specific symptoms and features of depression. There is evidence that the RH is selectively involved in processing negative emotions, pessimistic thoughts and unconstructive thinking styles--all which comprise the cognitive phenomenology of depression and in turn contribute to the elevated anxiety, stress and pain associated with the illness. Additionally, the RH mediates vigilance and arousal which may explain the sleep disturbances often reported in depression. The RH had also been linked with self-reflection, accounting for the tendency of depressed individuals to withdraw from their external environments and focus attention inward. Physiologically, RH activation is associated with hyprecortisolemia, which contributes to the deterioration of the immune system functioning and puts depressed patients at a greater risk of developing other illnesses, accounting for depression's high comorbidity with other diseases. Conversely, the LH is specifically involved in processing pleasurable experiences, and its relative attenuation is in line with the symptoms of anhedonia that characterize depression. The LH is also relatively more involved in decision-making processes, accounting for the indecisiveness that is often accompanied with depression.
    Neuroscience Research 10/2010; 68(2):77-87. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2010.06.013 · 2.15 Impact Factor