Silicone breast implant rupture presenting as bilateral leg nodules.
ABSTRACT Gross migration of silicone gel from ruptured breast implants is a rare event. It is associated with extravasation of gel into the breast parenchyma, and to distant locations such as the abdominal wall and inguinal areas. This silicone deposits present as subcutaneous nodules and cause a local reaction known as siliconoma. We evaluated a 56-year-old woman who presented with a 2-year history of painful, firm and ill-defined subcutaneous nodules on the medial aspect of the shins and ankles. Her medical history was notable for bilateral breast augmentation with silicone implants 30 years before presentation. Although there were no signs or symptoms on breast examination, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that both implants had ruptured. Histological examination of a punch biopsy from a nodule on the shin found lobular granulomatous panniculitis. An excisional biopsy of the lesion was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and was found to contain silicone. This is a rare case of gross migration of silicone to the shins, originating from ruptured breast implants. To our knowledge, there is no previous report of silicone migration to such a distant location. We discuss the common presentation of silicone migration and highlight the importance of awareness among dermatologists and plastic surgeons about this unusual occurrence.
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ABSTRACT: The development and increasing diffusion of new vaccinations and global immunization protocols have aroused burning debates about safety of adjuvants and their immunogenicity-enhancing effect in vaccines. Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin have grouped under the term "autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants" (ASIA) a complex of variable signs and symptoms that may occur after a previous exposure to different adjuvants and also external environmental triggers, even eliciting specific overt immune-mediated disorders. This entity subsumes five medical conditions: post-vaccination phenomena, gulf war syndrome, macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome, siliconosis, and sick building syndrome, but the relevance and magnitude of the syndrome in the pediatric age is fundamentally limited to post-vaccination autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. The occurrence of vaccine-triggered phenomena represents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and a research conundrum for many investigators. In this paper, we will analyze the general features of ASIA and focus on specific post-vaccination events in relation with the pediatric background. In the presence of a favorable genetic background, many autoimmune/inflammatory responses can be triggered by adjuvants and external factors, showing how the man himself might breach immune tolerance and drive many pathogenetic aspects of human diseases. Nonetheless, the elective application of ASIA diagnostic criteria to the pediatric population requires further assessment and evaluations. Additional studies are needed to help clarify connections between innate or adaptive immunity and pathological and/or protective autoantibodies mostly in the pediatric age, as children and adolescents are mainly involved in the immunization agendas related to vaccine-preventable diseases.Immunologic Research 11/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 2011 a new syndrome termed 'ASIA Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants' was defined pointing to summarize for the first time the spectrum of immune-mediated diseases triggered by an adjuvant stimulus such as chronic exposure to silicone, tetramethylpentadecane, pristane, aluminum and other adjuvants, as well as infectious components, that also may have an adjuvant effect. All these environmental factors have been found to induce autoimmunity by themselves both in animal models and in humans: for instance, silicone was associated with siliconosis, aluminum hydroxide with post-vaccination phenomena and macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to be involved in the onset of adjuvant-induced autoimmunity; a genetic favorable background plays a key role in the appearance on such vaccine-related diseases and also justifies the rarity of these phenomena. This paper will focus on protean facets which are part of ASIA, focusing on the roles and mechanisms of action of different adjuvants which lead to the autoimmune/inflammatory response. The data herein illustrate the critical role of environmental factors in the induction of autoimmunity. Indeed, it is the interplay of genetic susceptibility and environment that is the major player for the initiation of breach of tolerance.Journal of Autoimmunity 11/2013; · 7.02 Impact Factor
- Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 01/2015; 34(1):167-9. · 1.53 Impact Factor