Infliximab and other immunomodulating drugs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and the risk of serious bacterial infections

Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 021205, USA.
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 4.55). 06/2009; 30(3):253-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2009.04037.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There remain concerns about the safety of infliximab therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
To assess the association between the initiation of infliximab and other immunomodulating drugs and the risk of serious bacterial infection in the treatment of IBD.
We assembled a cohort study of patients with IBD, including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). All patients initiating an immunomodulating drug between January 2001 and April 2006 were identified in British Columbia from linked health care utilization databases. Exposure of interest was initiation of infliximab or corticosteroids compared with initiation of other immunosuppressive agents, including azathioprine, mercaptopurine (MP) and methotrexate (MTX). Outcome of interest was serious bacterial infections requiring hospitalization, including Clostridium difficile.
Among 10 662 IBD patients, the incidence rate of bacteriaemia ranged from 3.8 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 2.1-6.2) for other immunosuppressive agents to 7.4 (3.3-19.3) for infliximab with slightly higher rate for serious bacterial infections resulting in an adjusted relative risk 1.4 (0.47-4.24). Clostridium difficile infections occurred in 0/1000 (0-5.4) among 521 infliximab initiations and 14/1000 (10.6-18.2) for corticosteroids. Corticosteroid initiation tripled the risk of C. difficile infections (RR = 3.4; 1.9-6.1) compared with other immunosuppressant agents. This corticosteroid effect was neither dose-dependent nor duration-dependent. Bacteriaemia and other serious bacterial infections were not increased by corticosteroids or infliximab (5 events).
In a population-based cohort of patients with IBD, we found no meaningful association between infliximab and serious bacterial infections, although some subgroups had few events. Corticosteroid initiation increased the risk for C. difficile infections in these patients.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Anti-TNF-α therapies have shown protective effects against colitis, but an efficient tool for target suppression of its secretion - ideally via oral administration - remains in urgent demand. In the colon tissue, TNF-α is mainly secreted by the colonic macrophages. Here, we report an orally-administrated microspheric vehicle that can target the colonic macrophages and suppress the local expression of TNF-α for IBD treatment. This vehicle is formed by cationic konjac glucomannan (cKGM), phytagel and an antisense oligonucleotide against TNF-α. It was given to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitic mice via gastric perfusion. The unique swelling properties of cKGM enabled the spontaneous release of cKGM& antisense nucleotide (ASO) nano-complex from the phytagel scaffold into the colon lumen, where the ASO was transferred into colonic macrophages via receptor-mediated phagocytosis. The treatment significantly decreased the local level of TNF-α and alleviated the symptoms of colitis in the mice. In summary, our study demonstrates a convenient, orally-administrated drug delivery system that effectively targets colonic macrophages for suppression of TNF-α expression. It may represent a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of IBD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Biomaterials 04/2015; 48. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.01.013 · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2010; 16(39):4892. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v16.i39.4892 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevention is particularly important for cancer patients, because diarrhea often results in dose reductions or delays of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. We conducted this study to better ascertain the incidence, susceptibility, and risk factors for CDI in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy at our hospital. We performed a retrospective study among adult cancer patients admitted at "12 de Octubre" University Hospital between January 2009 through April 2013 who were diagnosed with diarrhea. Inpatient data were available on hospital medical records. We screened by immunochromatography system detecting glutamate dehydrogenase antigen, and C. difficile toxins A and B. Later, a polymerase chain reaction for detecting toxin B gene was performed. A total of 225 patients were included in the study, and 39 of them (17.3 %) were diagnosed with CDI. Type of tumor significantly differed between CDI patients, thus relative risk in each type of cancer was calculated after adjusting for age, antibiotic exposure, corticosteroid, and proton-pump inhibitor use. Patients with gastrointestinal tumors were less prone to CDI. Conversely, breast cancer patients have a greater predisposition to CDI. Antibiotic treatment was found to be associated with an increasing risk for CDI in breast cancer patients. Curiously, exposure to proton-pump inhibitors appeared protective in our cohort, except for lung cancer patients. However, we have not been able to find an association between a particular type of chemotherapy and CDI. We underscore the urgent need for early recognition and diagnosis of CDI in cancer patients. Our findings indicate a probable association between antibiotic use and CDI incidence, at least in certain cancer, such as breast cancer.
    Supportive Care Cancer 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00520-014-2506-7 · 2.50 Impact Factor