Role of counterion association in colloidal stability.
ABSTRACT A generalized model for colloidal stability has been validated against experimentally measured values of Fuchs stability ratio and critical coagulation concentration (ccc) for electrolytes with mono- or divalent cation, i.e., potassium chloride and magnesium chloride, respectively. Besides the classical DLVO theory, the generalized model accounts for the interplay between colloidal interactions and the association of cations with the particles surface charge groups. The model parameters are either obtained or estimated purely on the basis of independent information available in the literature. For the monovalent salt, the predictions agree well with literature experimental data, forecasting both the ccc values and stability ratios quantitatively. For the divalent salt the predictions for large values of the stability ratio tend to deviate from the experimental data produced in this work, but it is noted that the onset of stability, i.e., the ccc, and small stability ratios are correctly predicted. Moreover, a comparison of the above results with those neglecting the effect of counterion association with the particles surface charge groups indicates that the latter substantially overestimates stability ratios in the presence of high salt concentration in the case of the monovalent salt, and leads to unrealistic large values of the ccc for the divalent salt. Including the association of cations with the particles surface charge groups can explain the relatively low values of experimental ccc for divalent salts compared to the theoretical predictions by the classical DLVO theory neglecting ion association, which is apoint of interest in industrial coagulation processes.
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ABSTRACT: This article discusses plant virus nanoparticles as a weapon in the war on cancer. The successes and failures of numerous nanoparticle strategies are discussed as a background to consideration of the plant virus nanoparticle approach. To have therapeutic benefit, the advantages of the targeted nanoparticle must outweigh the problems of colloidal stability, uptake by the reticuloendothelial system as well as the requirement for clearance from the body. Biodegradable nanoparticles are considered to have the most promise to address these complex phenomena. After justifying the choice of biodegradable particles, the article focuses on comparison of micelles, liposomes, polymers and modified plant viruses. The structural uniformity, cargo capacity, responsive behavior and ease of manufacturing of plant virus nanoparticles are unique properties that suggest they have a wider role to play in targeted therapy. The loading of chemotherapeutic cargo is discussed, with specific reference to the advantage of reversible transitions of the capsid of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus. These features will be contrasted and compared with other biodegradable 'smart bombs' that target cancer cells.Nanomedicine 08/2009; 4(5):575-88. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The foam stability of dodecyl diphenyl ether disulfonate solution with liquid paraffin droplets in the presence and absence of electrolytes was evaluated, and the stabilization mechanisms were deduced. The foam film is stabilized when the monovalent and divalent counterion concentration is lower than a critical value. However, the foam stability declined with the addition of trivalent counterions. There are two mechanisms we have speculated. Firstly, the counterions reduce the repulsive interaction between the polar groups of surfactants adsorbed at the air/water and oil/water interfaces in the pseudo-emulsion film. Secondly, comparing with the monovalent counterions, the multivalent counterions are not only able to interconnect head groups of adjacent ionic surfactant molecules which are adsorbed at the air/water or oil/water interface, but also to attract the couples of neighboring surfactant head groups adsorbed at the air/water and oil/water interfaces. The attractive interaction between both the interfaces promotes the emulsified droplets piercing the air/water interface. KeywordsFoam stability-Film-Electrolyte surfactant-Liquid paraffinColloid and Polymer Science 01/2010; 288(12):1271-1280. · 2.16 Impact Factor
- Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 02/2013; 4:648-652. · 6.59 Impact Factor