Article

A laboratory evaluation to determine the compatibility of microbiological control agents with the pollinator Bombus terrestris.

Laboratory of Cellular Genetics, Department of Biology, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.
Pest Management Science (Impact Factor: 2.74). 05/2009; 65(9):949-55. DOI: 10.1002/ps.1778
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to identify any potential adverse side effects of the use of seven microbiological control agents (MCAs) on the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L., in the context of combined use in integrated pest management (IPM). AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqualis), Binab-T-vector (Hypocrea parapilulifera + T. atroviride; 1/1), Prestop-Mix (Gliocladium catenulatum J1446), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis QST713), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), Botanigard (Beauveria bassiana GHA) and Granupom (Cydia pomonella granulovirus), comprising five biofungicides and two bioinsecticides, were investigated. Bumblebee workers were exposed under laboratory conditions to each MCA at its maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) via three different routes of exposure: dermal contact and orally via either treated sugar water or pollen.
The tested MCAs were found to be safe for workers of B. terrestris, with the exception of Botanigard and Serenade. Exposure to Botanigard via contact at its MFRC caused 92% mortality after 11 weeks, while the 1/10 MFRC killed 46% of exposed workers. For Serenade, topical contact and oral delivery via sugar water resulted in 88 and 100% worker mortality respectively. With lower concentrations (1/2, 1/5 and 1/10 MFRC) the toxicity decreased, but the effect depended on the route of exposure. In addition to lethal effects, nests were also evaluated for sublethal effects after treatment with the seven MCAs at their respective MFRCs over 11 weeks. In these bioassays, only Botanigard and Serenade gave rise to a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in drone production. Sublethal effects on foraging behaviour were also evaluated, and only Botanigard at its MFRC delivered via treated sugar water induced negative effects.
The results demonstrated that most of the MCAs tested can be considered safe for use in combination with B. terrestris, based on the International Organisation for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) classification. However, some can be harmful, such as the biofungicide Serenade and the bioinsecticide Botanigard. Therefore, it is recommended that all should be tested before use in combination with pollinators. In this context, it is also advisable that these MCAs should be evaluated in more realistic field situations for the assessment of potentially deleterious effects on foraging behaviour.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
309 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To date, there are no validated internal reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data from virus infection experiments with pollinating insects. In this study we evaluated the stability of five candidate internal reference genes: elongation factor-1-alpha (ELF1α), peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), 60S ribosomal protein L23 (RPL23), TATA-binding protein (TBP) and polyubiquitin (UBI), in relation to Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) infection of Bombus terrestris. We investigated the stability of these genes: in whole bodies and individual body parts, as well as in whole bodies collected at different time intervals after infection with IAPV. Our data identified PPIA as the single, most-optimal internal reference gene and the combination of PPAI-RPL23-UBI as a fully-sufficient multiple internal reference genes set for IAPV infection experiments in B. terrestris.
    Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 10/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bee-vectoring is a new crop protection technology used for suppressing insect pests and diseases in crops by disseminating microbial agents into plants during bee pollination activities. In this study, we conducted bee-vectoring trials in cherry tomato greenhouses by using the bumble bee (Bombus terrestris), a microbial agent (Bacillus subtilis) and a new dispenser, and we measured the delivered quantity of microbial agent. Bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) in bees exiting a dispenser ranged from to per bee. At greenhouse trials in the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) trials, 3,300 - 8,500 CFUs per flower were counted and 80 - 100% of the flower samples contained detectable concentrations. There was no significant difference in CFU density between microbial replacement intervals (once a week vs twice a week) in the NAAS trials. In a commercial greenhouse trial, 1,800 - 2,400 CFUs per flower were found, and 83 - 93% of the flower samples contained detectable concentrations. CFUs detected in bee-vectored flowers increased by approximately 75 times before bee-vectoring. The mortality of bumble bees in the NAAS trials was, on average, 22% and little negative effects were observed on the bumble bee colonies. The yield difference for cherry tomatoes in the NAAS trials was not significant between treatments. When we select additional microbial agents that can be disseminated using this technology and create a detailed plan based on insect pests and disease incidence, we can apply this technology in greenhouses for growing tomatoes and strawberries in the near future.
    Korean journal of applied entomology. 12/2013; 52(4).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anthropogenic changes of the environment influence the distribution and abundance of pollinators such as bumblebees and have been proposed as one of the main causes in their worldwide decline. In order to evaluate the impact of expanding anthropogenic landscapes on supporting pollinator potential, reliable tools are needed. Bombus terrestris is one of the most abundant bumblebee species in Europe, and these bumblebees are known as generalist pollinators of not only wild flowers in nature but also of crops in agriculture. For more than two decades, these bumblebees have been commercially mass reared for biological pollination in greenhouses. In this project, we placed commercial hives of the bumblebee B. terrestris containing one queen and 40 workers, in three different locations in the region of Ghent (Belgium), and the performance of these hives was followed during a 4-week period in spring 2012. In parallel, we determined the floral richness and diversity index in the chosen study sites. The sites consisted of a rich urban environment with patchy green areas opposed to an urban environment with poor landscape metrics; a third rural study site showed average positive landscape metrics. The results demonstrated that the hive biomass and numbers of workers increased significantly in the rich compared to the poor environment, providing a mechanism to discriminate between study sites. In addition, the bumblebee-collected pollen showed that the flowering plants Salix spp. and Rosaceae/Prunus spp. are dominant food sources in all anthropogenic environments during early spring. Finally, the results are discussed in relation to the optimization of the experimental setup and to the use of commercial bumblebee hives in assessing local pollinator support within any given environment.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 12/2013; · 1.68 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
209 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014