Inhibition of platelet aggregation by 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion (MPP+) through ATP depletion: Evidence for the reduced platelet activities in Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT Neuronal accumulation of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)), the metabolite of neural toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyridine (MPTP), induces a rapid depletion of cellular ATP level and loss of neuronal cell viability which simulates human Parkinson's disease (PD). Since ATP plays an important role in the physiology and function of platelets, which share many biochemical and physiological features with neuronal cells, we examined the effect of MPP(+) on platelet aggregation and viability using freshly isolated rat platelets. While the treatment of MPP(+) to platelets did not induce cytotoxicity, it significantly attenuated agonist-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition of aggregation by MPP(+) was mediated by the depletion of the cytoplasmic ATP pool and resultant decreased ATP secretion. Different from the previous reports in neuronal cells, MPP(+) did not affect intracellular levels of glutathione and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in platelets. The combined treatment with MPP(+) and 2-deoxyglucose, a glycolysis inhibitor, showed the additive effect in the decrease of ATP secretion and intracellular content. Consistent with these findings, inhibitory effects of MPP(+) on platelet aggregation was significantly enhanced by the treatment with 2-deoxyglucose. In conclusion, these results suggested that MPP(+) can induce ATP depletion in platelets and attenuate platelet aggregation providing a new theory on the reduced platelet activities in PD patients.
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in a wide array of neurological disorders ranging from neuromuscular to neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies on neurodegenerative diseases have revealed that mitochondrial pathology is generally found in inherited or sporadic neurodegenerative diseases and is believed to be involved in the pathophysiological process of these diseases. Commonly seen types of mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases include excessive free radical generation, lowered ATP production, mitochondrial permeability transition, mitochondrial DNA lesions, perturbed mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. Mitochondrial medicine as an emerging therapeutic strategy targeted to mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases has been proven to be of value, though this area of research is still at in its early stage. In this article, we report on recent progress in the development of several mitochondrial therapies including antioxidants, blockade of mitochondrial permeability transition, and mitochondrial gene therapy as evidence that mitochondrial medicine has promise in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 05/2010; 42(5):560-72. · 4.89 Impact Factor