Systematic assessment of the impact of oral appliance therapy on the temporomandibular joint during treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: Long-term evaluation

Institute of Research and Development IP&D, University of Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil.
Sleep And Breathing (Impact Factor: 2.48). 05/2009; 13(4):375-81. DOI: 10.1007/s11325-009-0257-3
Source: PubMed


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea treated with long-term use of an oral appliance (OA) using a questionnaire based on the Helkimo Anamnestic Dysfunction Index. A further aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleep Scale (ESS) and otologic symptoms.
Polysomnograms of 34 patients were performed at baseline and after 6 months of OA use. As follow-up, the patients were contacted by telephone interview to answer the same questionnaires after 36.0 +/- 17.0 months.
The intensity of TMD symptoms decreased significantly throughout treatment (p < 0.01). ESS values improved from 12.2 +/- 5.0 to 6.9 +/- 2.6 (p < or = 0.05). Tinnitus was present in nine patients at baseline and decreased in intensity in seven patients by the final assessment while remaining at the same level in two patients.
We conclude that long-term usage of an OA does not cause impairment to the temporomandibular joint. The Helkimo and otologic indexes are simple and useful in long-term patient follow-up. There was a long-term improvement in the ESS values over the years analyzed. A follow-up program could increase compliance by motivating patients to use the device regularly.

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Available from: Sandra Bussadori, Oct 02, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess variations in the occurrence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the risk of developing pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients treated with either an oral appliance (mandibular advancement device) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in a 2-year follow-up study. In addition, we assessed the relationship between the mean mandibular protrusion and the frequency of wearing the appliance during follow-up with the occurrence of pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex. Fifty-one patients were randomized to oral appliance therapy and 52 patients to CPAP therapy. TMDs (diagnosed according to the Axis I Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD), pain intensity and disability and mandibular function impairment were recorded at baseline, after 2 months, 1 year and 2 years of therapy. Only in the initial period of treatment the occurrence of pain-related TMDs was considerably higher (24%) in the oral appliance group compared to CPAP (6%). Oral appliance therapy furthermore resulted in more temporomandibular pain compared to CPAP (odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval (1.22-4.43)). However, there were no limitations in mandibular function in both groups during the (entire) follow-up period. Although generally not serious and of transient nature, oral appliance therapy results in more pain-related TMDs in the initial period of use compared with CPAP therapy. Oral appliance therapy is associated with increased pain in the temporomandibular complex in the initial period of use. Because of the transient nature, this pain is not a reason to contra-indicate an oral appliance in OSAS patients. Moreover, TMDs and the risk of developing pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex appear limited with long-term oral appliance use.
    Clinical Oral Investigations 05/2011; 16(3):689-97. DOI:10.1007/s00784-011-0555-6 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients receiving a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to treat obstructive sleep apnea using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). In addition, it also aims to assess the development of posterior open bite (POB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 167 patients were evaluated at baseline, from 159 patients after 118 days (visit II), from 129 patients after 208 days (visit III), and from 85 patients after 413 days (visit IV). The presence of TMD symptoms was evaluated through a questionnaire. TMD signs were assessed using the RDC/TMD. Clinical evaluation assessed for the presence of POB. RESULTS: The prevalence of TMD was 33/167 (19.8 %) at baseline. After an initial decrease to 14.5 % on visit II, the prevalence increased to 19.4 % on visit III and finally demonstrated a decrease to 8.2 % on visit IV. The incidence of TMD was 10.6 % on visit II. This decreased on further visits and only two (1.9 %) patients developed TMD from visit III to visit IV. POB was found to develop with an average incidence of 6.1 % per visit. The prevalence of POB was 5.8 % on visit II, 9.4 % on visit III, and 17.9 % on visit IV. CONCLUSION: The use of MADs may lead to the development of TMD in a small number of patients. Nevertheless, these signs are most likely transient. Patients with pre-existing signs and symptoms of TMD do not experience significant exacerbation of those signs and symptoms with MAD use. Furthermore, these may actually decrease over time. POB was found to develop in 17.9 % of patients; however, only 28.6 % of these patients were aware of any bite changes.
    Sleep And Breathing 04/2012; 17(1). DOI:10.1007/s11325-012-0695-1 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Prior to oral appliance therapy for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), patients are screened for jaw symptoms (e.g., pain). However, the presence of jaw symptoms in a large spectrum of OSAS patients remains unknown. This study aimed to assess the distribution of subjective jaw symptoms in patients with symptoms of OSAS. METHODS: Five hundred and eleven consecutive patients (66 female, 445 male; mean age 49.6 ± 12.6 years) with clinical symptoms of OSAS were enrolled for cardiorespiratory evaluation. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess jaw symptoms, tooth grinding and clenching during sleep, morning oral dryness, morning heartburn sensation, and pain in the neck and back. RESULTS: The mean apnea-hypopnea (AHI) index was 32.5 ± 30.6 per hour of sleep. Nineteen percent of patients (n = 96) reported at least one jaw symptom. The presence of jaw symptoms was more frequently reported by patients with AHI less than 15 (25 %) than those with AHI of 15 and more (15 %, p = 0.012). In the crude analyses, jaw symptoms were associated with tooth grinding, tooth clenching, morning oral dryness, morning heartburn sensation, and neck/back pain. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that jaw symptoms were associated with AHI less than 15 (odds ratio (OR) 1.99, p = 0.009), tooth clenching (OR 1.79, p = 0.006), morning oral dryness (OR 2.17, p = 0.02), and neck/back pain (OR 1.99, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Jaw symptoms can be found in 19 % of patients with symptoms of OSAS and are more frequently reported in patients with lower AHI, a patient population for whom oral appliances are often prescribed.
    Sleep And Breathing 04/2012; 17(1). DOI:10.1007/s11325-012-0704-4 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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