Cell Cycle Regulation by MicroRNAs in Embryonic Stem Cells

The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 06/2009; 69(10):4093-6. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-0309
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The cell cycle is tightly orchestrated during normal development. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a unique cell cycle structure, in which the G1/S restriction is largely absent, enabling cells to rapidly move through the G1 phase and enter the S phase. This hastened cell cycle allows the early embryo to rapidly grow. Recent experiments suggest that small noncoding RNAs, the microRNAs (miRNAs), play a central role in achieving this unique cell cycle structure. The responsible miRNAs function by suppressing multiple inhibitors of the G1/S transition. Expression of these miRNAs drops dramatically as the ES cells differentiate and as the G1 phase extends. Some of the same miRNAs are overexpressed in cancers, in which they can promote tumor growth, suggesting common mechanisms of miRNA-regulated cell cycle control in ES cells and cancers. This review discusses these recent findings in the context of broader knowledge of cell cycle control in normal and abnormal development.

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Available from: Yangming Wang, Aug 21, 2015
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    • "The predicted target genes for the 4 differential expression miRNAs (miR-143, miR-145, miR-2325c and miR- 2361, Table 2 and Fig. 5) were classified altogether according to KEGG functional annotations to identify pathways that were actively regulated by miRNA in intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Interestingly, the most 40 miRNA targets belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway, which is known to be closely involved in the inhibition of adipogenesis (Wang et al., 2009). Another important pathway targeted by the highly expressed miRNA is the TGF-β signaling pathway, which is known to be involved in a wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and migration. "
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a newly identified class of non-protein-coding ~22nt small RNA which plays important roles in multiple biological processes by degrading targeted mRNA or repressing mRNA translation. Here we present EST (expressed sequence tags)-based and GSS (Genomic Survey Sequences)-based combined approach for the detection of conserved miRNAs of cattle. A total of 20 conserved miRNAs that belong to 18 miRNA families were detected following a range of filtering criteria; their functions were further predicted and analyzed. To confirm our prediction, a miRNA-detecting microarray was designed with probes complementary to previously known mature miRNA sequences from 131 organisms. After hybridizing with small RNAs extracted from beef cattle subcutaneous fat tissue, 219 (32.30%) miRNAs were detected in the 679 known Bos taurus miRNAs and all the miRNAs predicted above were also detected. Conformation of 22 most abundant miRNA expression by qRT-PCR indicated that they were highly accumulated not only in subcutaneous fat tissue but also in intramuscular fat tissue. Bioinformatics of KEGG pathway analysis suggested that 4 differential expression miRNAs (miR-143, miR-145, miR-2325c and miR-2361) involved in different pathways and target genes may regulate the fat deposition differently. Taken together, our results expand the number of known bovine miRNAs and provide a thorough account of the miRNA transcriptome in bovine adipose tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Gene 01/2015; 559(2). DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2015.01.021 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    • "notype by stimulation of expression of pluripotent genes (Wang et al. 2007, 2008, Babiarz et al. 2008, Wang and Blelloch 2009). These miRNAs have the ability to regulate the cell cycle which probably is connected with their capacity to enhance iPS cell reprogramming (Judson et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from adult somatic tissues by reprogramming technology has opened new therapeutic possibilities. Current most efficient procedures for derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are based on the viral vectors, which represent the danger of insertional mutagenesis during incorporation of introduced genes into the host genome. To circumvent this problem, the new, safe, non-integrative and non-viral strategies of reprogramming have been developed. In this review we discuss novel DNA-free and viral-free methods of reprogramming to iPS cells including protein transduction, mRNA and microRNA delivery.
    Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis 01/2014; 74(4):373-82. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    • "The miRNAs are expressed from their own genes located in the intergenic (between protein-coding genes) or intragenic region (within protein-coding genes, in an exonic or intronic manner) on the chromosomes (Lagos- Quintana et al. 2001; Wang and Blelloch 2009). In plants, most miRNA genes are intergenic and transcribed individually from their own region, but a few genes are organized into polycistronic transcription units and cotranscribed from a single promoter at the end of a miRNA gene cluster (Bartel 2004; He and Hannon 2004; Voinnet 2009). "
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