Function and survival of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) renal transplants have been shown to be comparable to those from heart-beating donors (HBDs) up to 10 years after transplantation. However, there are few data on outcome after 10 years, particularly from uncontrolled NHBD donors.
All NHBD renal transplants (predominantly uncontrolled) performed between April 1992 and January 2002 were retrospectively matched with HBD renal transplants performed over the same period.
Some 112 NHBD renal transplants were compared with 164 HBD renal transplants. Delayed graft function was significantly higher in the NHBD group (83.9 versus 22.0 per cent respectively; P < 0.001). Primary non-function rates were similar (5.4 versus 1.8 per cent respectively; P = 0.164). Overall serum creatinine was significantly higher in NHBDs (P < 0.001). Median graft and patient survival was 126 months for NHBD and 159 months for HBD kidneys. Death-censored graft survival at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years was respectively 91.8, 77.5, 61.0 and 44.2 per cent for NHBD, and 91.1, 86.3, 71.7 and 58.5 per cent for HBD kidneys (P = 0.108).
Despite increased delayed graft function rates and serum creatinine levels, the long-term survival of NHBD renal transplants was similar to those from HBDs. However, there was a trend to poorer function and survival from 10 years after transplant.
"However, organs from these donors are more prone to ischemia-reperfusion injury because DCD kidneys suffer a period of warm ischemic damage (no-flow and low-flow periods) in addition to cold ischemia during ex-vivo conservation. Consequently, the risk of primary nonfunction and delayed graft function is higher
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation is proposed for abdominal organ procurement from donation after circulatory determination of death (DCD). In France, the national Agency of Biomedicine supervises the procurement of kidneys from DCD, specifying the durations of tolerated warm and cold ischemia. However, no study has determined the optimal conditions of this technique. The aim of this work was to develop a preclinical model of DCD using abdominal normothermic oxygenated recirculation (ANOR). In short, our objectives are to characterize the mechanisms involved during ANOR and its impact on abdominal organs.
We used Large White pigs weighing between 45 and 55 kg. After 30 minutes of potassium-induced cardiac arrest, the descending thoracic aorta was clamped and ANOR set up between the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta for 4 hours. Hemodynamic, respiratory and biochemical parameters were collected. Blood gasometry and biochemistry analysis were performed during the ANOR procedure.
Six ANOR procedures were performed. The surgical procedure is described and intraoperative parameters and biological data are presented. Pump flow rates were between 2.5 and 3 l/min. Hemodynamic, respiratory, and biochemical objectives were achieved under reproducible conditions. Interestingly, animals remained hemodynamically stable following the targeted protocol. Arterial pH was controlled, and natremia and renal function remained stable 4 hours after the procedure was started. Decreased hemoglobin and serum proteins levels, concomitant with increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, were observed as a consequence of the surgery. The serum potassium level was increased, owing to the extracorporeal circulation circuit.
Our ANOR model is the closest to clinical conditions reported in the literature and will allow the study of the systemic and abdominal organ impact of this technique. The translational relevance of the pig will permit the determination of new biomarkers and protocols to improve DCD donor management.
"Whilst long term outcomes and graft survival are similar between DBDs and DCDs, it has been well established that kidneys from DCD’s have higher rates of primary non-function (PNF) and delayed graft function (DGF) than from DBD kidneys [1-4]. These differences impact on in-hospital stay and overall costs which are consequently much higher in DCD compared to DBD transplants. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
There is no national policy for allocation of kidneys from Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors in the UK. Allocation is geographical and based on individual/regional centre policies. We have evaluated the short term outcomes of paired kidneys from DCD donors subject to this allocation policy.
Retrospective analysis of paired renal transplants from DCD’s from 2002 to 2010 in London. Cold ischemia time (CIT), recipient risk factors, delayed graft function (DGF), 3 and 12 month creatinine) were compared.
Complete data was available on 129 paired kidneys.115 pairs were transplanted in the same centre and 14 pairs transplanted in different centres. There was a significant increase in CIT in kidneys transplanted second when both kidneys were accepted by the same centre (15.5 ± 4.1 vs 20.5 ± 5.8 hrs p < 0.0001 and at different centres (15.8 ± 5.3 vs. 25.2 ± 5.5 hrs p = 0.0008). DGF rates were increased in the second implant following sequential transplantation (p = 0.05).
Paired study sequential transplantation of kidneys from DCD donors results in a significant increase in CIT for the second kidney, with an increased risk of DGF. Sequential transplantation from a DCD donor should be avoided either by the availability of resources to undertake simultaneous procedures or the allocation of kidneys to 2 separate centres.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the newest strategies to enlarge the pool of organ donors is to consider the category of donors after cardiac death rather than only after brain death. Prompt and accurate identification of potential donors and appropriate care is necessary to optimize the management of nonheartbeating donors.
Organ procurement derived from donors after cardiac death is becoming a part of the policy of major transplantation hospitals, forcing them to consider the practical interventions and ethical implications regarding this practice. Typical donors are patients affected by irreversible brain injuries, high spinal cord injury and end-stage musculoskeletal diseases. To start the process the following three conditions must be met. Withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies must be considered independently from transplantation. Withdrawal of life support requires a careful titration of the drugs controlling pain, anxiety and discomfort. Organ harvesting has to be initiated after at least 2-5 min of confirmed cardiac death.
In order to increase the number of organs available for transplantation, donation from nonheartbeating donors has been recently proposed. Identification of the key aspects of the donation after cardiac death should be fully achieved by the team involved in the transplantation program. Development of hospital policies and identification of receivers who are most likely to benefit from this strategy require further studies to assess long-term outcome and to identify ethical aspects concerning different religious and cultural backgrounds.
Current opinion in anaesthesiology 04/2010; 23(3):406-10. DOI:10.1097/ACO.0b013e3283395352 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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