Disentangling Contributions of Reproductive Tract Infections to HIV Acquisition in African Women
ABSTRACT : To estimate the effects of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) on HIV acquisition among Zimbabwean and Ugandan women.
: A multicenter prospective observational cohort study enrolled 4439 HIV-uninfected women aged 18 to 35 attending family planning clinics in Zimbabwe and Uganda. Participants were interviewed, and tested for HIV and RTIs every 3 months for 15 to 24 months. They received HIV risk reduction counseling, male condoms, and treatment for curable RTIs.
: Despite HIV risk reduction counseling and regular screening and treatment for RTIs, the HIV incidence did not decline during the study. Positive HSV-2 serostatus at baseline (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.69, 95% confidence interval = 2.45-5.55), incident HSV-2 (HR = 5.35, 3.06-9.36), incident Neisseria gonorrhoeae (HR = 5.46, 3.41-8.75), and altered vaginal flora during the study (bacterial vaginosis [BV]: HR = 2.12, 1.50-3.01; and intermediate flora: HR = 2.02, 1.39-2.95) were independently associated with HIV acquisition after controlling for demographic and behavioral covariates and other RTIs (Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and vaginal yeasts). For N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, and vaginal yeasts, the risk of HIV acquisition increased when the infection was identified at the visit before the HIV-detection visit or with the duration of infection. Population attributable risk percent (PAR%) calculations show that HSV-2 contributes most to acquisition of new HIV infections (50.4% for baseline HSV-2 and 7.9% for incident HSV-2), followed by altered vaginal flora (17.2% for bacterial vaginosis and 11.8% for intermediate flora).
: A substantial proportion of new HIV infections in Zimbabwean and Ugandan women are attributable to RTIs, particularly HSV-2 and altered vaginal flora.
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ABSTRACT: To assess, among women with HIV, whether long-term oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 supplementation can prevent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and enhance the cure rate of metronidazole among those with BV. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted among 65 HIV-infected women with an aberrant microbiota (Nugent score 4-10) who were randomized to receive daily probiotics or placebo for 6 months. Those with BV (Nugent score 7-10) additionally received metronidazole for 10 days (400 mg twice daily). We did not find an enhanced cure rate of BV among women with HIV treated with adjuvant probiotics to metronidazole treatment. Among women with an intermediate vaginal flora, probiotics tended to increase the probability of a normal vaginal flora (odds ratio 2.4; P=0.1) and significantly increased the probability of a beneficial vaginal pH (odds ratio 3.8; P=0.02) at follow-up. Supplementation of probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 did not enhance the cure of BV among women living with HIV, but may prevent the condition among this population. Trial registration: NCT00536848.International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 12/2010; 111(3):245-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.07.008 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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