Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders and Subsequent Cardiovascular Morbidity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Mother

Department of Obstetrics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 07/2009; 53(6):944-51. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.130765
Source: PubMed


Minimal data exist concerning the relationship between hypertensive pregnancy disorders and various subsequent cardiovascular events and the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on these. In a registry-based cohort study, we identified women delivering in Denmark from 1978 to 2007 with a first singleton (n=782 287) and 2 first consecutive singleton deliveries (n=536 419). The exposures were gestational hypertension and mild and severe preeclampsia. We adjusted for preterm delivery, small for gestational age, placental abruption, and stillbirth and, in a second model, we also adjusted for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The end points were subsequent hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, thromboembolic event, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk of subsequent hypertension was increased 5.31-fold (range: 4.90 to 5.75) after gestational hypertension, 3.61-fold (range: 3.43 to 3.80) after mild preeclampsia, and 6.07-fold (range: 5.45 to 6.77) after severe preeclampsia. The risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus was increased 3.12-fold (range: 2.63 to 3.70) after gestational hypertension and 3.68-fold (range: 3.04 to 4.46) after severe preeclampsia. Women having 2 pregnancies both complicated by preeclampsia had a 6.00-fold (range: 5.40 to 6.67) increased risk of subsequent hypertension compared with 2.70-fold (range: 2.51 to 2.90) for women having preeclampsia in their first pregnancy only and 4.34-fold (range: 3.98 to 4.74) for women having preeclampsia in their second pregnancy only. The risk of subsequent thromboembolism was 1.03-fold (range: 0.73 to 1.45), 1.53-fold (range: 1.32 to 1.77), and 1.91-fold (range: 1.35 to 2.70) increased after gestational hypertension and mild and severe preeclampsia, respectively. Thus, hypertensive pregnancy disorders are strongly associated with subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, the latter independent of subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus. The severity, parity, and recurrence of these hypertensive pregnancy disorders increase the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events.

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Available from: Jacob Alexander Lykke, Feb 14, 2015
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    • "Gestational hypertensive disorders (GHD) include gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. GHD is associated with an increased risk of chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus [9]; it may also increase the risk of maternal and infant mortality [10,11]. These associations have been also reported in Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders (TSI) women [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Australian Aboriginal women tend to have body shape and pregnancy risk profiles different from other Australian women. This study aims to examine the associations of anthropometric indices with gestational hypertensive disorders (GHD), and to determine the index that can best predict the risk of this condition occurring during pregnancy. This is a nested case-control study. Baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured as part of a broader health screening program between 1992 and 1995 in a remote Aboriginal community. All subsequent pregnancies among the original participants were identified during 20 year follow-up period through hospital records (up to May 2012). Twenty eight women were diagnosed as having GHD, each of whom were individually matched by age at baseline with five women who were hospitalised for other pregnancy-related conditions and were free from GHD (n = 140). The associations of the baseline anthropometric measurements with GHD were assessed using conditional logistic regression. The best predictor of GHD was WC (OR = 1.8; (95% CI, 1.1-2.9) for one standard deviation increase in WC), followed by BMI with the corresponding OR = 1.7 (95% CI, 1.1- 2.6). Other measurements, HC, WHR, and WHtR, were also positively associated with GHD, but those associations were not statistically significant. WC and BMI prior to pregnancy are anthropometric predictors of GHD in Aboriginal women, and WC is the best predictor. These findings imply the importance of early weight control in preventing GHD in Aboriginal women.
    BMC Research Notes 03/2014; 7(1):122. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-122
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    • "CVD and PE have some common risk factors like obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore as PE is known to be the risk factor for CVD, CVD does the same with PE [57-61]. Women had PE before 34 weeks or PE combined with preterm birth has an even higher risk of death from CVD, at four to eight times the risk of women who had a normal pregnancy [62]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. It occurs in women with first or multiple pregnancies and is characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria. Improper placentation is mainly responsible for the disease. If PE remains untreated, it moves towards more serious condition known as eclampsia. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria, obesity, family history, nulliparity, multiple pregnancies and thrombotic vascular disease contribute as the risk factors for PE. PE triggered metabolic stress causes vascular injury, thus contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in future. This risk appears to be increased especially in women with a history of recurrent PE and eclampsia. Clinically increased serum levels of sFlt-1 and decreased placental growth factor (PIGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represent the severe condition of PE. The clinical findings of sever PE are assorted by the presence of systemic endothelial dysfunction, microangiopathy, the liver (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests and low platelet count, namely HELLP syndrome) and the kidney (proteinuria). The early detection of PE is one of the most important goals in obstetrics.
    Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 02/2014; 6(1):1-7. DOI:10.4021/jocmr1682w
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    • "More severe forms of PIH were hypothesized to be due to insufficient blastocyst invasion early in pregnancy (week 20–22, Fig. 1) resulting in conflict over limited resources later in pregnancy, which is more damaging for both mother and offspring, in spite of fetuses also benefitting from increased provisioning [12], [16]. Damaging effects for mother’s own health include increased risks of mortality [34], morbidity [35] and health problems during subsequent pregnancies [36]. Our results suggest that PIH in the first 13 weeks of pregnancy may enhance fetal blastocyst invasion leading to a more accessible maternal blood supply later in pregnancy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal mortality and disease affecting 5-10% of all pregnancies worldwide, but its etiology remains poorly understood despite considerable research effort. Parent-offspring conflict theory suggests that such hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may have evolved through the ability of fetal genes to increase maternal blood pressure as this enhances general nutrient supply. However, such mechanisms for inducing hypertension in pregnancy would need to incur sufficient offspring health benefits to compensate for the obvious risks for maternal and fetal health towards the end of pregnancy in order to explain why these disorders have not been removed by natural selection in our hunter-gatherer ancestors. We analyzed >750,000 live births in the Danish National Patient Registry and all registered medical diagnoses for up to 30 years after birth. We show that offspring exposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in trimester 1 had significantly reduced overall later-life disease risks, but increased risks when PIH exposure started or developed as preeclampsia in later trimesters. Similar patterns were found for first-year mortality. These results suggest that early PIH leading to improved postpartum survival and health represents a balanced compromise between the reproductive interests of parents and offspring, whereas later onset of PIH may reflect an unbalanced parent-offspring conflict at the detriment of maternal and offspring health.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e56821. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056821 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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