Phase I/II and pharmacokinetic study of cladribine with 2-h infusion in Japanese patients with relapsed indolent B-cell lymphoma mostly pretreated with rituximab.

Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.
Cancer Science (Impact Factor: 3.53). 05/2009; 100(7):1344-50. DOI: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01162.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We conducted a phase I/II study to investigate the toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy profiles of cladribine with 2-h intravenous infusion for five consecutive days every four weeks in Japanese patients with relapsed indolent B-cell lymphoma. This was a dose-escalation study to confirm the safety of the doses which have been recommended for Caucasian patients (phase I), and to further evaluate the efficacy and safety (phase II). In the phase I portion for nine patients, no dose-limiting toxicities were observed at levels 1 (0.09 mg/kg/day, n = 3) and 2 (0.12 mg/kg/day, n = 6). No appreciable accumulation of plasma cladribine concentration was suggested. We enrolled a total of 20 patients, and an additional 14 patients in the phase II portion at level 2 (0.12 mg/kg/day). Eighteen patients, including 13 with follicular lymphoma, were eligible for efficacy evaluation, and 15 (83%) were pretreated with rituximab. The overall response rate was 50% (9/18; 80% confidence interval, 35-65%), with 11% (2/18) complete response. With a median follow-up of 296 days, the estimated median time to progression for 18 eligible patients was 382 days. The most frequent adverse events were hematologic toxicities, including grade 4 neutropenia. Non-hematologic toxicities were mild. In conclusion, cladribine with 2-h intravenous infusion for five consecutive days every four weeks is effective with acceptable toxicities for Japanese patients with relapsed indolent B-cell lymphoma, including those pretreated with rituximab.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use and objectives of expansion cohorts in phase I cancer trials and to explore trial characteristics associated with their use. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE, limiting studies to single-agent phase I trials recruiting adults and published after 2006. Eligibility assessment and data extraction were performed by two reviewers. Data were assessed descriptively, and associations were tested by univariable and multivariable logistic regression. We identified 611 unique phase I cancer trials, of which 149 (24%) included an expansion cohort. The trials were significantly more likely to use an expansion cohort if they were published more recently, were multicenter, or evaluated a noncytotoxic agent. Objectives of the expansion cohort were reported in 74% of trials. In these trials, safety (80%), efficacy (45%), pharmacokinetics (28%), pharmacodynamics (23%), and patient enrichment (14%) were cited as objectives. Among expansion cohorts with safety objectives, the recommended phase II dose was modified in 13% and new toxicities were described in 54% of trials. Among trials aimed at assessing efficacy, only 11% demonstrated antitumor activity assessed by response criteria that was not previously observed during dose escalation. The utilization of expansion cohorts has increased with time. Safety and efficacy are common objectives, but 26% fail to report explicit aims. Expansion cohorts may provide useful supplementary data for phase I trials, particularly with regard to toxicity and definition of recommended dose for phase II studies.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2013; 31(33). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2012.47.4957 · 17.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although cladribine has been reported to be an active purine analog against indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), there are few reports of combination use of cladribine and rituximab. This multicenter phase II study evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of cladribine with rituximab (R-2-CdA) therapy in relapsed or refractory indolent B-NHL. Twenty patients with the median age of 58.5 yrs (range, 42-72) were enrolled and received R-2-CdA therapy from April 2005 to July 2007. The median number of prior regimens was 2 (range, 1-3), and fifteen patients (75%) were previously treated with rituximab-containing regimens. Disease histology included follicular lymphoma in 16 patients, MALT lymphoma in two patients, nodal marginal B-cell lymphoma in one patient, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma in one patient. The overall response rate (ORR) was 90%, with a complete response rate (CRR) of 70%. Estimated median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 22.4 months (95%CI, 10.9-32.6 months) at a median follow-up time of 27 months (range, 12-43). Two-year PFS and 2-yr overall survival (OS) were 52.6% (95%CI, 31.0-73.2%) and 89.5% (95%CI, 66.1-97.3%), respectively. Grade 3 or grade 4 toxicities were neutropenia in 74% and thrombocytopenia in 11%. R-2-CdA therapy was demonstrated to have a high activity with durable PFS and acceptable toxicity in relapsed or refractory indolent B-NHL mostly pretreated with rituximab-containing therapy. Although a large-scale trial is needed for confirmation, R-2-CdA therapy could be a good salvage therapy option in relapsed or refractory indolent B-NHL.
    European Journal Of Haematology 11/2010; 86(2):117-23. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0609.2010.01552.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Before the contemporary development of rationally designed antineoplastic therapies, cladribine was identified as a lymphocyte-specific agent. Its profound impact on the natural history of hairy cell leukemia, with responses approaching 100% and a median duration of response of nearly a decade after only a single 7-day course, is well known and revolutionized the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. However, cladribine's impressive activity in other lymphoproliferative disorders has been generally underappreciated. Multiple single-arm phase 2 trials have demonstrated cladribine's potency across the full spectrum of lymphoid malignancies. In a limited number of phase 3 trials and cross-study analyses, cladribine compared favorably with fludarabine, another purine nucleoside analog that is more commonly used in the treatment of indolent lymphoid malignancies. Cladribine has been noted to have particular activity among lymphoid disorders with few effective therapies, specifically, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma. Recently approved novel agents may act in synergy with cladribine for these conditions and should be incorporated into future clinical studies.
    Blood 10/2010; 116(16):2884-96. DOI:10.1182/blood-2010-02-246140 · 9.78 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Oct 17, 2014