Phase I/II and pharmacokinetic study of cladribine with 2-h infusion in Japanese patients with relapsed indolent B-cell lymphoma mostly pretreated with rituximab

Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.
Cancer Science (Impact Factor: 3.52). 05/2009; 100(7):1344-50. DOI: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01162.x
Source: PubMed


We conducted a phase I/II study to investigate the toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy profiles of cladribine with 2-h intravenous infusion for five consecutive days every four weeks in Japanese patients with relapsed indolent B-cell lymphoma. This was a dose-escalation study to confirm the safety of the doses which have been recommended for Caucasian patients (phase I), and to further evaluate the efficacy and safety (phase II). In the phase I portion for nine patients, no dose-limiting toxicities were observed at levels 1 (0.09 mg/kg/day, n = 3) and 2 (0.12 mg/kg/day, n = 6). No appreciable accumulation of plasma cladribine concentration was suggested. We enrolled a total of 20 patients, and an additional 14 patients in the phase II portion at level 2 (0.12 mg/kg/day). Eighteen patients, including 13 with follicular lymphoma, were eligible for efficacy evaluation, and 15 (83%) were pretreated with rituximab. The overall response rate was 50% (9/18; 80% confidence interval, 35-65%), with 11% (2/18) complete response. With a median follow-up of 296 days, the estimated median time to progression for 18 eligible patients was 382 days. The most frequent adverse events were hematologic toxicities, including grade 4 neutropenia. Non-hematologic toxicities were mild. In conclusion, cladribine with 2-h intravenous infusion for five consecutive days every four weeks is effective with acceptable toxicities for Japanese patients with relapsed indolent B-cell lymphoma, including those pretreated with rituximab.

Download full-text


Available from: Yasuo Ohashi, Oct 17, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding fully the mechanism(s) of action of current and novel anticancer drugs is essential to optimize treatment regimens for oncology patients, to improve or extend drug efficacy and reduce patient side effects. Nucleoside analogues, either alone or in combination with additional therapeutic agents, are an essential part of first-line and salvage regimens directed against neoplastic diseases. However, many mechanistic studies on this class of drugs have been carried out in vitro or ex vivo at drug concentrations that are orders of magnitude higher than levels achieved in vivo. In this paper, we focus on the anti-leukemic drug and nucleoside analogue, cladribine (2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine), to illustrate the difficulty in interpreting the significance of in vitro results obtained using drug concentrations that would be markedly deleterious to patients. We review numerous research reports that have been conducted at pharmacologically achievable drug levels compared to those using toxic concentrations and contrast the respective results. We propose that cellular responses to supra-pharmacological drug concentrations occur via distinctly different mechanisms and signaling pathways compared to the much lower plasma concentrations achieved with clinically relevant doses, and thus may not provide appropriate insights into a drug's mechanism of action.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism &amp Toxicology 12/2009; 6(1):75-81. DOI:10.1517/17425250903393745 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Before the contemporary development of rationally designed antineoplastic therapies, cladribine was identified as a lymphocyte-specific agent. Its profound impact on the natural history of hairy cell leukemia, with responses approaching 100% and a median duration of response of nearly a decade after only a single 7-day course, is well known and revolutionized the treatment of hairy cell leukemia. However, cladribine's impressive activity in other lymphoproliferative disorders has been generally underappreciated. Multiple single-arm phase 2 trials have demonstrated cladribine's potency across the full spectrum of lymphoid malignancies. In a limited number of phase 3 trials and cross-study analyses, cladribine compared favorably with fludarabine, another purine nucleoside analog that is more commonly used in the treatment of indolent lymphoid malignancies. Cladribine has been noted to have particular activity among lymphoid disorders with few effective therapies, specifically, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma. Recently approved novel agents may act in synergy with cladribine for these conditions and should be incorporated into future clinical studies.
    Blood 10/2010; 116(16):2884-96. DOI:10.1182/blood-2010-02-246140 · 10.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although cladribine has been reported to be an active purine analog against indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), there are few reports of combination use of cladribine and rituximab. This multicenter phase II study evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of cladribine with rituximab (R-2-CdA) therapy in relapsed or refractory indolent B-NHL. Twenty patients with the median age of 58.5 yrs (range, 42-72) were enrolled and received R-2-CdA therapy from April 2005 to July 2007. The median number of prior regimens was 2 (range, 1-3), and fifteen patients (75%) were previously treated with rituximab-containing regimens. Disease histology included follicular lymphoma in 16 patients, MALT lymphoma in two patients, nodal marginal B-cell lymphoma in one patient, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma in one patient. The overall response rate (ORR) was 90%, with a complete response rate (CRR) of 70%. Estimated median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 22.4 months (95%CI, 10.9-32.6 months) at a median follow-up time of 27 months (range, 12-43). Two-year PFS and 2-yr overall survival (OS) were 52.6% (95%CI, 31.0-73.2%) and 89.5% (95%CI, 66.1-97.3%), respectively. Grade 3 or grade 4 toxicities were neutropenia in 74% and thrombocytopenia in 11%. R-2-CdA therapy was demonstrated to have a high activity with durable PFS and acceptable toxicity in relapsed or refractory indolent B-NHL mostly pretreated with rituximab-containing therapy. Although a large-scale trial is needed for confirmation, R-2-CdA therapy could be a good salvage therapy option in relapsed or refractory indolent B-NHL.
    European Journal Of Haematology 11/2010; 86(2):117-23. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0609.2010.01552.x · 2.07 Impact Factor
Show more