Facial nerve preservation after vestibular schwannoma Gamma Knife radiosurgery

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.07). 05/2009; 93(1):41-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11060-009-9842-3
Source: PubMed


Facial nerve preservation is a critical measure of clinical outcome after vestibular schwannoma treatment. Gamma Knife radiosurgery has evolved into a practical treatment modality for vestibular schwannoma patients, with several reported series from a variety of centers. In this study, we report the results of an objective analysis of reported facial nerve outcomes after the treatment of vestibular schwannomas with Gamma Knife radiosurgery.
A Boolean Pub Med search of the English language literature revealed a total of 23 published studies reporting assessable and quantifiable outcome data regarding facial nerve function in 2,204 patients who were treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma. Inclusion criteria for articles were: (1) Facial nerve preservation rates were reported specifically for vestibular schwannoma, (2) Facial nerve functional outcome was reported using the House-Brackmann classification (HBC) for facial nerve function, (3) Tumor size was documented, and (4) Gamma Knife radiosurgery was the only radiosurgical modality used in the report. The data were then aggregated and analyzed based on radiation doses delivered, tumor volume, and patient age.
An overall facial nerve preservation rate of 96.2% was found after Gamma Knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma in our analysis. Patients receiving less than or equal to 13 Gy of radiation at the marginal dose had a better facial nerve preservation rate than those who received higher doses (<or=13 Gy = 98.5% vs. >13 Gy = 94.7%, P < 0.0001). Patients with a tumor volume less than or equal to 1.5 cm(3) also had a greater facial nerve preservation rate than patients with tumors greater than 1.5 cm(3) (<or=1.5 cm(3) 99.5% vs. >1.5 cm(3) 95.5%, P < 0.0001). Superior facial nerve preservation was also noted in patients younger than or equal to 60 years of age (96.8 vs. 89.4%, P < 0.0001). The average reported follow up duration in this systematic review was 54.1 +/- 31.3 months.
Our analysis of case series data aggregated from multiple centers suggests that a facial nerve preservation rate of 96.2% can be expected after Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma. Younger patients with smaller tumors less than 1.5 cm(3) and treated with lower doses of radiation less than 13 Gy will likely have better facial nerve preservation rates after Gamma Knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma.

Download full-text


Available from: Isaac Yang, Sep 25, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hearing loss is the most common presenting symptom in patients who harbor a vestibular schwannoma (VS). Although mechanical injury to the cochlear nerve and vascular compromise of the auditory apparatus have been proposed, the exact mechanism of this hearing loss remains unclear. To test whether pressure on the cochlear nerve from tumor growth in the internal auditory canal (IAC) is responsible for this clinical finding, the authors prospectively evaluated intracanalicular pressure (ICaP) in patients with VS and correlated this with preoperative brainstem response. In 40 consecutive patients undergoing a retrosigmoid-transmeatal approach for tumor excision, ICaP was measured by inserting a pressure microsensor into the IAC before any tumor manipulation. Pressure recordings were correlated with tumor size and preoperative auditory evoked potential (AEP) recordings. The ICaP, which varied widely among patients (range 0-45 mm Hg), was significantly elevated in most patients (median 16 mm Hg). Although these pressure measurements directly correlated to the extension of tumor into the IAC (p = 0.001), they did not correlate to total tumor size (p = 0.2). In 20 patients in whom baseline AEP recordings were available, the ICaP directly correlated to wave V latency (p = 0.0001), suggesting that pressure from tumor growth in the IAC may be responsible for hearing loss in these patients. Tumor growth into the IAC results in elevation of ICaP and may play a role in hearing loss in patients with VS. The relevance of these findings to the surgical treatment of these tumors is discussed.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 06/2002; 96(5):872-6. DOI:10.3171/jns.2002.96.5.0872 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Outcomes following vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery have been extensively described; however, complication rates reported in the literature vary markedly. In addition, the majority of reports have focused on outcomes related to cranial nerves (CNs) VII and VIII. The objective of this study was to analyze reported morbidity unrelated to CNs VII and VIII following the resection of VS. The authors performed a comprehensive search of the English language literature, identifying and aggregating morbidity and death data from patients who had undergone microsurgical removal of VSs. A subgroup analysis based on surgical approach and tumor size was performed to compare rates of CSF leakage, vascular injury, neurological deficit, and postoperative infection. One hundred articles met the inclusion criteria, providing data for 32,870 patients. The overall mortality rate was 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.3%). Twenty-two percent of patients (95% CI 21-23%) experienced at least 1 surgically attributable complication unrelated to CNs VII or VIII. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 8.5% of patients (95% CI 6.9-10.0%). This rate was markedly increased with the translabyrinthine approach but was not affected by tumor size. Vascular complications, such as ischemic injury or hemorrhage, occurred in 1% of patients (95% CI 0.75-1.2%). Neurological complications occurred in 8.6% of cases (95% CI 7.9-9.3%) and were less likely with the resection of smaller tumors (p < 0.0001) and the use of the translabyrinthine approach (p < 0.0001). Infections occurred in 3.8% of cases (95% CI 3.4-4.3%), and 78% of these infections were meningitis. This study provides statistically powerful data for practitioners to advise patients about the published risks of surgery for VS unrelated to compromised CNs VII and VIII.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2009; 114(2):367-74. DOI:10.3171/2009.10.JNS091203 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Complex medical decision making obligates tradeoff assessments among treatment outcomes expectations, but an accessible tool to perform the necessary analysis is conspicuously absent. We aimed to demonstrate methodology and feasibility of adapting conjoint analysis for mapping clinical outcomes expectations to treatment decisions in vestibular schwannoma (VS) management. Prospective. Tertiary medical center and US-based otologists/neurotologists. Treatment preference profiles among VS stakeholders-61 younger and 74 older prospective patients, 61 observation patients, and 60 surgeons-were assessed for the synthetic VS case scenario of a 10-mm tumor in association with useful hearing and normal facial function. Treatment attribute utility. Conjoint analysis attribute levels were set in accordance to the results of a meta-analysis. Forty-five case series were disaggregated to formulate microsurgery facial nerve and hearing preservation outcomes expectations models. Attribute utilities were computed and mapped to the realistic treatment choices of translabyrinthine craniotomy, middle fossa craniotomy, and gamma knife radiosurgery. Among the treatment attributes of likelihoods of causing deafness, temporary facial weakness for 2 months, and incurable cancer within 20 years, and recovery time, permanent deafness was less important to tumor surgeons, and temporary facial weakness was more important to tumor surgeons and observation patients (Wilcoxon rank-sum, p < 0.001). Inverse mapping of preference profiles to realistic treatment choices showed all study cohorts were inclined to choose gamma knife radiosurgery. Mapping clinical outcomes expectations to treatment decisions for a synthetic clinical scenario revealed inhomogeneous drivers of choice selection among study cohorts. Medical decision engines that analyze personal preferences of outcomes expectations for VS and many other diseases may be developed to promote shared decision making among health care stakeholders and transparency in the informed consent process.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 02/2010; 31(2):284-93. DOI:10.1097/MAO.0b013e3181cc06cb · 1.79 Impact Factor
Show more