The sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in British marine mammals.
ABSTRACT Serum samples from 101 stranded or bycatch cetaceans from British waters were screened for Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies using the Sabin Feldman Dye Test. Relatively high seropositivity was recorded in short-beaked Delphinus delphis and this study presents the first documented case of Toxoplasma in a humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Dan Forman, May 26, 2015
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ABSTRACT: We assayed blood/tissue fluid samples from 20 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from western Greenland coastal waters for antibodies against the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii by the direct agglutination test (DAT). Nine individuals (45%) were interpreted to be seropositive at 1:40 dilution and 4 (20%) were seropositive up to 1:160. Samples from these individuals were assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and tissue samples of the DAT-positive animals were tested by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). Results from both methods were negative, suggesting the absence of infection in the tested animals. After chloroform clean-up, all were negative when re-assayed by DAT. We concluded that infection with T. gondii was absent in all 20 animals, despite the initially positive DAT results, and that the false positives resulted from non-specific adherence to tachyzoites in the DAT assay which could be removed by the chloroform clean-up method. Our results suggest that detecting antibodies against T. gondii using the DAT or the modified agglutination technique, particularly on samples from Arctic marine animals which often are rich in lipids, may lead to false positive results. For such samples, the use of ELISA or PCR on available tissue samples may be advocated as confirmatory tests in order to avoid false positives and overestimating seroprevalence.Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 04/2014; 108(3):181-6. DOI:10.3354/dao02715 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The general consensus of a rapidly changing ocean ecosystem being affected by anthropogenic activities needs to be understood in relation to both wildlife and human health. The risks and challenges for the Philippines include lack of scientific information on waterborne diseases that are potentially zoo-notic. The present study fills in this knowledge gap by detecting the occurrence of bacteria, Giardia, and Toxoplasma gondii in locally found cetacean species. Cetaceans (n = 30) that stranded from January 2012 through March 2013 were appropriately responded to, and biological materials were taken whenever applicable. A total of 25 bacteria were isolated from nine stranders. Phenotypic and genotypic methods of isolate identification yielded 12 consensus genera:. No screened strander was positive for Giardia. Serological assay detected antibodies for T. gondii in five stranders, while nested polymerase chain reaction positively amplified the B1 gene of the parasite in two stranders. This study provides the first report on bacteria and T. gondii in cetaceans found in the Philippines. Since the detected microorganisms include species recognized to cause new infections in marine mammals worldwide, the findings of the study underscore the potential of stranded cetaceans to serve as sentinels for studying the movement of emerging pathogens in marine habitats, provide clues on the health status of their free-ranging populations, and present the health risks available to humans who share the same water resource with them.
Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(11)60201-1 · 13.93 Impact Factor