Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii.

Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Edinburgh.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Impact Factor: 1.57). 04/2009; 104(2):246-51. DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000200018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

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    ABSTRACT: As clinical toxoplasmosis is not considered a problem in pigs, the main reason to implement a control strategy against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in this species is to reduce the establishment of T. gondii tissue cysts in pork, consequently reducing the risk of the parasite entering the human food chain. Consumption of T. gondii tissue cysts from raw or undercooked meat is one of the main sources of human infection, with infected pork being considered a high risk. This study incorporates a mouse bioassay with molecular detection of T. gondii DNA to study the effectiveness of vaccination (incomplete S48 strain) in its ability to reduce tissue cyst burden in pigs, following oocyst (M4 strain) challenge. Results from the mouse bioassay show that 100% of mice which had received porcine tissues from vaccinated and challenged pigs survived compared with 51.1% of mice which received tissues from non-vaccinated and challenged pigs. The presence (or absence) of T. gondii DNA from individual mouse brains also confirmed these results. This indicates a reduction in viable T. gondii tissue cysts within tissues from pigs which have been previously vaccinated with the S48 strain. In addition, the study demonstrated that the main predilection sites for the parasite were found to be brain and highly vascular muscles (such as tongue, diaphragm, heart and masseter) of pigs, while meat cuts used as human food such as chop, loin, left tricep and left semitendinosus, had a lower burden of T. gondii tissue cysts. These promising results highlight the potential of S48 strain tachyzoites for reducing the number of T. gondii tissues cysts in pork and thus improving food safety.
    Veterinary Research 05/2015; 46(1). DOI:10.1186/s13567-015-0177-0 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smaller macropodid species (commonly referred to as wallabies) are extremely susceptible to toxoplasmosis: in most cases, infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to death within a short time. Between June 2006 and July 2010, T. gondii was detected by immunohistochemical examination in six Tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) that died in the Budapest Zoo and Botanical Garden; in another four specimens histopathology revealed T. gondii-like organisms (which could not be differentiated from Neospora caninum solely by morphology), and in another 11 animals toxoplasmosis as the possible cause of death could not be excluded. The current zoo population of 12 Tammar wallabies was tested for T. gondii IgG antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with negative results. We suppose that most of the deaths were due to acute toxoplasmosis resulting from a recent infection.
    Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 09/2012; 60(3):361-70. DOI:10.1556/AVet.2012.031 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is acquired through consumption of undercooked infected meat, or by uptake of cat-shed oocysts. Although congenital toxoplasmosis is generally considered to contribute most to the disease burden of T. gondii, ocular disease from acquired infection was recently shown to add substantially. In addition, toxoplasmosis in immune-compromised individuals usually results from reactivation of an infection acquired earlier in life. Nevertheless, prevention of toxoplasmosis commonly targets mainly pregnant women. We summarize current prevention strategies of congenital toxoplasmosis and evaluate options to improve protection of the general population (including pregnant women). To protect the general population, freezing of meat destined for raw or undercooked consumption is the most readily applicable option, especially when limited to meat from animals originating from non-biosecure husbandry systems. In the long term more health benefits are expected from cat vaccination; therefore development of a cat-vaccine and evaluation of its implementation is a research priority.


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