Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii.

Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Edinburgh.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Impact Factor: 1.36). 04/2009; 104(2):246-51. DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000200018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

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    ABSTRACT: The current anti-Toxoplasma gondii drugs have many shortcomings and effective vaccines against T. gondii may contribute to the control of this pathogen. Pidotimod is a synthetic substance capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immunity. To investigate the possible adjuvant effect of pidotimod on the immune response to T. gondii in Kunming mice induced by ultraviolet-attenuated T. gondii (UV-T.g), in this study, mice were immunized intraperitoneal (i.p.) with UV-T.g or UV-T.g co-administered with pidotimod (UV-T.g + PT). After infection or challenge by i.p. injection of 10(2) RH tachyzoites, the animal survival rate, parasite burden in peritoneal lavage fluids, liver histopathology, the level of serum anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody, and the mRNA expressions of IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α from spleen analyzed using real-time PCR, were compared among different groups. The results showed that, compared with infected controls, infected mice treated with pidotimod had significantly increased survival rate and extended survival time, decreased parasite burden, improved liver histopathology, increased level of anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody, and increased mRNA expressions of Th1-type cytokine (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) (P < 0.01), while mice vaccinated with UV-T.g and then challenged had even significantly increased survival rate and extended survival time, decreased parasite burden, improved liver histopathology, and increased mRNA expressions of Th1-type cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) (P < 0.01); furthermore, vaccinated mice co-administered with pidotimod had even more lower parasite burden, milder liver histopathology, and higher levels of Th1-type cytokine and anti-toxoplasma IgG antibody (P < 0.01). Our data demonstrated that pidotimod in vivo could promote strong and specific humoral and cellular immune response to T. gondii challenge infection when co-administered with UV-attenuated T. gondii. It suggests that pidotimod may have the potential to be used as an effective vaccine adjuvant.
    Parasitology Research 06/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excretory secretory antigens (ESAs) of Toxoplasma gondii are one of the candidates for immunization against toxoplasmosis. For evaluation of immunization, we determined the kinetics of the distribution of Toxoplasma and parasite load in different tissues of mice immunized by ESAs. In this experimental study, 36 mice in case (n=18) and control (n=18) groups were immunized with ESAs and PBS, respectively. After 2 weeks, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Toxoplasma virulent RH strain. Blood and different tissues (brain, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, and muscle) were collected daily after challenge (1, 2, 3 and last day before death). Parasite load was calculated using Real time QPCR targeted at the B1 gene. ESAs as vaccine in different tissues showed various effects. However, infected mice which received the vaccine in comparison with control group, displayed a drastically decreasing in parasite burden, in their blood and tissues (P= 0.000). These results indicated that ESAs with reduction of parasite load in different tissues of host could be evaluable candidate for the development of immunization strategies against toxoplasmosis.
    Experimental Parasitology 05/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a major public health problem, infecting one-third of the world human beings, and leads to abortion in domestic animals. A vaccine strategy would be an ideal tool for improving disease control. Many efforts have been made to develop vaccines against T. gondii to reduce oocyst shedding in cats and tissue cyst formation in mammals over the last 20 years, but only a live-attenuated vaccine based on the S48 strain has been licensed for veterinary use. Here, the authors review the recent development of T. gondii vaccines in cats, food-producing animals and mice, and present its future perspectives. However, a single or only a few antigen candidates revealed by various experimental studies are limited by only eliciting partial protective immunity against T. gondii. Future studies of T. gondii vaccines should include as many CTL epitopes as the live attenuated vaccines.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 10/2013; · 4.22 Impact Factor


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