American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association Consensus Statement on Inpatient Glycemic Control

Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Diabetes care (Impact Factor: 8.57). 07/2009; 32(6):1119-31. DOI: 10.2337/dc09-9029
Source: PubMed
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maintaining glucose in the target range, while avoiding hypoglycemia, is challenging in critically ill patients. We investigated the performance and safety of Medtronic Sentrino, a newly developed continuous glucose management (CGM) system for critically ill adults. This was a prospective, single-center, single-arm, open-label study in adult patients with cardiac ICU admission. Sentrino subcutaneous glucose sensors were inserted into patients' thigh with planned study participation of 72 h. Sensor glucose results were displayed, and the system's alerts and alarms fully enabled. Reference blood glucose was collected from central venous catheter and analyzed with a blood gas analyzer. Treatment decisions were made independently of sensor glucose values, according to the existing standard of care. A total of 21 patients were enrolled; all successfully completed the study. Sensor glucose values were displayed 96% of the time, and 870 paired blood glucose-sensor glucose points were analyzed. Overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was 12.8% (95% CI 11.9% to 13.6%). No clinically significant differences in accuracy were seen within subgroups of hemodynamic status (MARD 12.3% and 13.1% for compromised vs stable hemodynamics). Consensus grid analysis showed >99% of sensor glucose values within A/B zones. No device or study-related adverse events were reported. 100% of clinicians found Sentrino easy to use after two patients. In our single-center experience, Sentrino CGM system demonstrated good accuracy and reliability, with no device-related adverse events in critically ill cardiac patients, and was easy to use and integrate in the cardiac ICU. NCT01763567.
    04/2014; 2(1):e000037. DOI:10.1136/bmjdrc-2014-000037
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypoglycemia is a common problem among hospitalized patients. Treatment of hyperglycemia with insulin is potentially associated with an increased risk for hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypoglycemia (capillary blood glucose <70 mg/dL) in hospitalized patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This prospective multicenter study involved 19 Spanish hospitals. Noncritically ill adults who were prescribed TPN were included, thus enabling us to collect data on capillary blood glucose and insulin dosage. The study included 605 patients of whom 6.8% (n = 41) had at least one capillary blood glucose <70 mg/dL and 2.6% (n = 16) had symptomatic hypoglycemia. The total number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 d of TPN was 0.82. In univariate analysis, hypoglycemia was significantly associated with the presence of diabetes, a lower body mass index (BMI), and treatment with intravenous (IV) insulin. Patients with hypoglycemia also had a significantly longer hospital length of stay, PN duration, higher blood glucose variability, and a higher insulin dose. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a lower BMI, high blood glucose variability, and TPN duration were risk factors for hypoglycemia. Use of IV insulin and blood glucose variability were predictors of symptomatic hypoglycemia. The occurrence of hypoglycemia in noncritically ill patients receiving PN is low. A lower BMI and a greater blood glucose variability and TPN duration are factors associated with the risk for hypoglycemia. IV insulin and glucose variability were predictors of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Nutrition 01/2015; 31(1):58-63. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2014.04.023 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare the effectiveness and safety of two glycemic control regimens in stable critical care patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). Prospective, randomized open-label clinical trial. Eligible postoperative critical care patients in the ICU began PN on the first to the seventh day of ICU admission. The PN admixture included regular insulin, in doses sufficient to maintain 3 or more goal blood glucose (BG) levels between 110 and 180 mg/dl. After 3 to 5 days of PN containing regular insulin, patients were randomized to 3 more days of regular insulin at the same dose or 80% of their total daily regular insulin dose provided in PN solution as glargine insulin. Capillary BG monitoring was performed every 6 hours. Twenty one patients were randomized to each treatment group. Median APACHE II scores were not significantly different between the two groups within the first 24-hour of ICU admission. There were no significant differences between the two groups at day 3 for mean daily dextrose (306.9 ± 46.2 vs. 305.2 ± 52.2 g; p=0.913) or insulin (18.3 ± 8.8 vs. 19.5 ± 10.0 units; p=0.696) doses. The percentage of BG values in the goal (110-180 mg/dl), hyperglycemic (> 180 mg/dl), and hypoglycemic (< 70 mg/dl) BG levels were similar between the two groups (69.0% vs. 66.7%, p=0.567; 11.9% vs. 11.1%, p=0.780; 0% vs. 1.6%, p=0.124, respectively). Mean daily BG levels were not significantly different between the two groups on each of the 3 study days (day 1: 140 ± 20 vs. 131 ± 25 mg/dl, p=0.194; day 2: 136 ± 20 vs. 140 ± 18 mg/dl, p=0.498; day 3: 142 ± 15 vs. 140 ± 19 mg/dl; p=0.741). These data suggest that, compared with regular insulin added to PN, glargine insulin results in similar glycemic control and rates of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in stable critical care patients. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
    Pharmacotherapy 02/2015; 35(2):148-57. DOI:10.1002/phar.1546 · 2.20 Impact Factor