A review of the use of genetically engineered enzymes in electrochemical biosensors.
ABSTRACT This article gives an overview of the electrochemical biosensors that incorporate genetically modified enzymes. Firstly, the improvements on the sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors that integrate mutated enzymes are summarised. Next, new trends focused on the oriented immobilisation of mutated enzymes through specific functional groups located at their surface are reviewed. Finally, the effect of enzyme mutations on the electron transfer distance and kinetics of electrochemical biosensors is described.
- SourceAvailable from: José Roberto Siqueira Jr.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper brings an overview of the use of nanostructured films in several types of biosensors, with emphasis on the advantageous control of molecular architecture which is typical of the layer-by-layer (LbL) and Langmuir–Blodgett films. Following introductory sections on film fabrication and detection methods, we concentrate on the immobilization of biomolecules on these nanostructured films used in units for biosensing. Important contributions in the literature in biosensors based on electrochemical and optical measurements are highlighted. Furthermore, a discussion is presented on how the concept of electronic tongues has been extended to biosensing, which resulted in increased sensitivity and selectivity. The integration of sensing units with micro-electronics is commented upon, especially in the context of using field-effect transistors (FETs) for biosensing. Examples of LbL and LB films containing proteins, lipids, metallic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, which are used for detecting a variety of analytes, will be provided. The prospects for clinical diagnosis with such biosensors are also assessed. Throughout the review, emphasis is placed on the importance of control of molecular architecture, particularly with synergistic combination of organic and inorganic materials. For example, nanostructured films containing capped gold nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes exhibited enhanced performance in biosensing. It is hoped that this survey may assist researchers in choosing materials, molecular architectures, and detection principles, which may be tailored for specific applications.Biosensors & Bioelectronics 01/2010; · 6.45 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors for direct applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the most immediate and relevant developments toward this end, and we discuss and assess common transduction approaches. Further, we critically describe the pros and cons of current commercial lactate sensors and envision how future sensing design may benefit from emerging new technologies.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 09/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t We present a one-step inhibition biosensor method that can be used to determine mixtures of three organophosphorus compounds. We propose to calculate the rate of irreversible inactivation of the enzyme (k p) to demonstrate the direct relationship between enzymatic biosensors and Chlorpyriphos-oxon (CPO), Chlorfenvinphos (CFV) and Azinphos-methyl oxon (AZMO) insecticides. The array of biosensors was designed using only two acetylcholinesterases from Drosophila melanogaster (wild-type and genetically modified). We used the values the slope of inhibitions m i from an array of biosensors and an artificial neural network to solve mixtures of CPO, CFV and AZMO insecticides The errors were low between the obtained and expected values for a set of 20 external test samples.Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 01/2012; 164:22-28. · 3.84 Impact Factor