Although Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (Compositae) has long been used in traditional Korean, Chinese, Japanese medicine to treat various immune-related diseases the underlying mechanism(s) by which these effects are induced remains to be defined in vivo model system. We investigated the effects of 70% ethanolic extract from Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (CIE) on skin inflammation in mice.
Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta), activation of myeloperoxidase, and histological assessment were examined in acute and chronic skin inflammation using 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema.
CIE inhibited topical edema in the mouse ear, following administration at 200mg/kg (i.p.), leading to substantial reductions in skin thickness and tissue weight, inflammatory cytokine production, neutrophil-mediated myeloperoxidase activity, and various histopathological indicators. Furthermore, CIE was effective at reducing inflammatory damage induced by chronic TPA exposure.
These results demonstrate that CIE is an effective anti-inflammatory agent in murine phorbol ester-induced dermatitis, and suggest that the extract may have therapeutic potential in a variety of immune-related cutaneous diseases.
"indicum) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been used to treat various inflammation-related diseases with high efficacy and low toxicity for several centuries [5, 6]. Modern pharmacological researches demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of C. indicum decreased inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing nuclear factor kappa B- (NF-κB-) dependent pathways  and attenuated mouse contact dermatitis through blocking synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, such as nitrite oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) . The phytochemical profiles of this plant showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and alkenes, some of which had been suggested to be responsible for its therapeutic properties against inflammation-related diseases via scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reducing proinflammatory cytokines [5, 6, 9–13]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. The results indicated that CISCFE significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, reduced carrageenan-induced paw, and inhibited the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, CISCFE abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that CISCFE decreased the MDA level via increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of NF- κ B, TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2. In phytochemical study, 35 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and 5 compounds (chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, linarin, luteolin and acacetin) were reconfirmed and quantitatively determined by HPLC-PAD. This paper firstly analyzed the chemical composition by combining GC-MS with HPLC-PAD and explored possible mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of CISCFE.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2013; 2013(3):413237. DOI:10.1155/2013/413237 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herbal medicines have been used in preventing and treating skin disorders for centuries. It has been demonstrated that systemic administration of chrysanthemum extract exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether topical applications of apigenin, a constituent of chrysanthemum extract, influence cutaneous inflammation is still unclear. In the present study, we first tested whether topical applications of apigenin alleviate cutaneous inflammation in murine models of acute dermatitis. The murine models of acute allergic contact dermatitis and acute irritant contact dermatitis were established by topical application of oxazolone and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), respectively. Inflammation was assessed in both dermatitis models by measuring ear thickness. Additionally, the effect of apigenin on stratum corneum function in a murine subacute allergic contact dermatitis model was assessed with an MPA5 physiology monitor. Our results demonstrate that topical applications of apigenin exhibit therapeutic effects in both acute irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis models. Moreover, in comparison with the vehicle treatment, topical apigenin treatment significantly reduced transepidermal water loss, lowered skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration in a subacute murine allergic contact dermatitis model. Together, these results suggest that topical application of apigenin could provide an alternative regimen for the treatment of dermatitis.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2012; 2012(11):912028. DOI:10.1155/2012/912028 · 1.88 Impact Factor
"After that, mice were killed by cervical dislocation and 6 mm2 diameter ear punch biopsies were collected and H&E analysis was carried out [24,26]. The Prism software package (Graph Pad Prism 4.03 for Windows) was used for data presentation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The isoflavonoid genistein represents the major active compound from soybean, the vegetal product from Glycine max (Fabaceae). The aim of this study is to prove that genistein was incorporated in two semisynthetic cyclodextrins, beta-cyclodextrin derivatives: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and randomly-methylated-beta-cyclodextrin as well as to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of genistein with that of genistein incorporated in these two types of semisynthetic cyclodextrins.
The animal studies were conducted on 8-week old C57BL/6 J female mice. Inflammation was induced in both ears of each mouse by topical application of 10 micrograms 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-3-acetate dissolved in 0.1 ml solvent (acetone : dimethylsulfoxide in a molar ratio 9:1). Thirty minutes later treatment was applied. The inflammatory reaction was correlated with increased values in ear thickness. Treatment with genistein and genistein incorporated in the two cyclodextrins led to decreased values for ear thickness. Better anti-inflammatory action was found for the complexes of genistein. Both haematoxylin-eosin analysis and CD45 marker expression are in agreement with these findings.
Results allow concluding that genistein is an active anti-inflammatory phytocompound and its complexation with hydrophilic beta-cyclodextrin derivatives leads to a stronger anti-inflammatory activity.
Chemistry Central Journal 06/2012; 6(1):58. DOI:10.1186/1752-153X-6-58 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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