Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice are more vulnerable to ER stress after transient forebrain ischemia.
ABSTRACT Apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice have been shown to have increased vulnerability to neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischemia; however, the mechanism of this increased vulnerability remains unclear. In order to define the role of the apoE protein against ischemia-induced ER stress and cell death, experiments were performed to compare ER stress-associated chaperones and signal proteins in the hippocampus of apoE(-/-) mice to those of WT mice after being subjected to forebrain ischemia and reperfusion. Although neuronal loss in area CA1-CA3 of the hippocampus was observed 3 days after ischemia in both types of mice, the damage in apoE(-/-) mice was more severe. In apoE(-/-) mice, a more extensive increase in 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) was observed after the insult, whereas the level of GRP94 was not changed. The expression of both C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12 was increased in the hippocampus in both WT and apoE(-/-) mice after ischemia. The increased levels of CHOP in apoE(-/-) mice were significantly higher than those in WT mice, whereas the levels of caspase-12 in the two were comparable. Furthermore, whereas the levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-JNK1 and p-JNK2 in WT mice were unchanged after ischemia, they were significantly increased in apoE(-/-) mice 24h and 48h after ischemia. These results suggest that increased vulnerability of the hippocampus to forebrain ischemia and reperfusion in apoE(-/-) mice is at least partly attributable to perturbed induction of an ER chaperone, GRP 94, and enhancement of the CHOP- and JNK-dependent apoptotic pathway in the hippocampus.
Article: Proteomic and functional annotation analysis of injured peripheral nerves reveals ApoE as a protein upregulated by injury that is modulated by metformin treatment.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) results in a fundamental reorganization of the translational machinery in the injured peripheral nerve such that protein synthesis is increased in a manner linked to enhanced mTOR and ERK activity. We have shown that metformin treatment, which activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), reverses tactile allodynia and enhanced translation following PNI. To gain a better understanding of how PNI changes the proteome of the sciatic nerve and ascertain how metformin treatment may cause further change, we conducted a range of unbiased proteomic studies followed by biochemical experiments to confirm key results. RESULTS: We used multidimensional protein identification technology (MUDPIT) on sciatic nerve samples taken from rats with sham surgery, spinal nerve ligation (SNL) surgery or SNL + 200 mg/kg metformin treatment. MUDPIT analysis on these complex samples yielded a wide variety of proteins that were sorted according to their peptide counts in SNL and SNL + metformin compared to sham. These proteins were then submitted to functional annotation analysis to identify potential functional networks altered by SNL and SNL + metformin treatment. Additionally, we used click-chemistry-based labeling and purification of nascently synthesized proteins followed by MUDPIT to further identify peptides that were synthesized within the injured nerve. With these methods, we identified apolipoprotein E (ApoE) as a protein profoundly increased by PNI and further increased by PNI and metformin. This result was confirmed by Western Blot of samples from SNL rats and spared nerve injury (SNI) mice. Furthermore, we show that 7-day treatment with metformin in naive mice leads to an increase in ApoE expression in the sciatic nerve. CONCLUSIONS: These proteomic findings support the hypothesis that PNI leads to a fundamental reorganization of gene expression within the injured nerve. Our data identify a key association of ApoE with PNI that is regulated by metformin treatment. We conclude from the known functions of ApoE in the nervous system that ApoE may be an intrinsic factor linked to nerve regeneration after PNI, an effect that is further enhanced by metformin treatment.Molecular Pain 03/2013; 9(1):14. · 3.53 Impact Factor