Peptide antibiotics: an alternative and effective antimicrobial strategy to circumvent fungal infections.

Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Kannur University, Kerala, India.
Peptides (Impact Factor: 2.61). 06/2009; 30(5):999-1006. DOI: 10.1016/j.peptides.2009.01.026
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mycosis, caused by both filamentous fungi and pathogenic yeasts is a major concern nowadays especially in the immunocompromised patient population. The emergence of pathogenic fungi resistant to current therapies in the last few decades has intensified the search for new antifungals like cationic peptides, which are the key components of innate defense mechanism. The review provides an inventory of different peptides from a diverse array of organisms from bacteria to mammals with proven antifungal activity, their therapeutic options and also about those which are in various stages of preclinical development. Literature, on the total and semi-synthetic variants of the parent peptides that exhibit an improved antifungal activity is also reviewed.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was determine the antimicrobial activity against several bacteria and yeasts of coriander (Coriander sativum) and parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oils (EOs) encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin. The encapsulated EOs were individually tested against several bacteria and yeast using colorimetric broth microdilution method. All species were supplied by the Spanish Type Culture Collection (CECT) of the University of Valencia. Both coriander and parsley encapsulated EO had a very similar antibacterial activity against all the tested strains, with MIC values ranged between 10 and 20 mg/mL. Y. lipolytica showed lower MIC values (5 mg/mL) for both encapsulated EOs than S. cerevisiae and C. Zeylanoides (10 mg/mL).This study showed that both coriander and parsley encapsulates EOs might be a good alternative, as natural antimicrobial agents, to the actual synthetic compounds used in Food industry. However more studies must be done in order to have a better evaluation on the antimicrobial activity.
    Worldwide Research Efforts in the Fighting Against Microbial Pathogens, ICAR Conference Series edited by A. Mendez-Vilas, 11/2013: chapter In Vitro antimicrobial properties of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oils encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin: pages 168-171; Brownwalker Press., ISBN: 978-1-61233-636-7
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decades, the indiscriminate use of conventional antibiotics has generated high rates of microbial resistance. This situation has increased the need for obtaining new antimicrobial compounds against infectious diseases. Among these, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute a promising alternative as therapeutic agents against various pathogenic microbes. These therapeutic agents can be isolated from different organisms, being widespread in nature and synthesized by microorganisms, plants and animals (both invertebrates and vertebrates). Additionally, AMPs are usually produced by a non-specific innate immune response. These peptides are involved in the inhibition of cell growth and of the killing of several microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, envelope viruses, protozoans and other parasites. They have many interesting properties as potential antibiotics, such as relatively small sizes (below 25-30 kDa), amphipathic structures, cationic nature, and offer low probability for the generation of microbial resistance. In recent years, many novel AMPs, with very promising therapeutic properties, have been discovered. These peptides have been the base for the production of chemical analogs, which have been designed, chemically synthesized and tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity. This review is focused on antibacterial (against Gram (-) and Gram (+) bacteria) and antifungal peptides, discussing action mode of AMPs, and recent advances in the study of the molecular basis of their anti-microbial activity. Finally, we emphasize in their current pharmacological development, future directions and applications of AMPs as promising antibiotics of therapeutic use for microbial infections.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2014; · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent the first line of defense against many invading pathogens. These small amphipathic peptides are part of the innate immune system and have a broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. In mammals, at least two distinct groups of AMPs are found. Defensins are the more representatives and cathelicidins form the second group. The hCAP18/LL37 is the only known human cathelicidin. The antimicrobial peptide is referred to as LL37, since it has a 37 amino acids sequence starting with two leucines. It is a 4.5 kDa, cationic (+6), amphipathic α-helical peptide, with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Besides its antimicrobial properties LL37 plays a central role in innate immune responses and inflammation. It has been identified as a potent chemoattractant for mast cells, monocytes, T lymphocytes and neutrophils using formyl-peptide receptor–like 1 (FPRL1). LL37 also promotes wound healing, angiogenesis and arteriogenesis and acts as immune adjuvant.