Transferrin and ferritin response to bacterial infection: the role of the liver and brain in fish.
ABSTRACT Iron is essential for growth and survival, but it is also toxic when in excess. Thus, there is a tight regulation of iron that is accomplished by the interaction of several genes including the iron transporter transferrin and iron storage protein ferritin. These genes are also known to be involved in response to infection. The aim of this study was to understand the role of transferrin and ferritin in infection and iron metabolism in fish. Thus, sea bass transferrin and ferritin H cDNAs were isolated from liver, cloned and characterized. Transferrin constitutive expression was found to be highest in the liver, but also with significant expression in the brain, particularly in the highly vascularized region connecting the inferior lobe of the hypothalamus and the saccus vasculosus. Ferritin, on the other hand, was expressed in all tested organs, but also significantly higher in the liver. Fish were subjected to either experimental bacterial infection or iron modulation and transferrin and ferritin mRNA expression levels were analyzed, along with several iron regulatory parameters. Transferrin expression was found to decrease in the liver and increase in the brain in response to infection and to increase in the liver in iron deficiency. Ferritin expression was found to inversely reflect transferrin in the liver, increasing in infection and iron overload and decreasing in iron deficiency, whereas in the brain, ferritin expression was also increased in infection. These findings demonstrate the evolutionary conservation of transferrin and ferritin dual functions in vertebrates, being involved in both the immune response and iron metabolism.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tetrapod vertebrates express three neuropeptide Y (NPY)-related peptides: NPY, peptide YY (PYY), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Both NPY and PYY mRNA have been localized in the brain of tetrapods whereas PP expression is restricted to the pancreas. Some teleost fish commonly produce NPY and PYY but pancreatic peptide Y (PY) instead of PP. Both NPY and PYY mRNAs are widely distributed in the brain of non-tetrapod species, but no information about PY central expression is available. In the present study, molecular riboprobes were used to study PYY and PY mRNA central distribution in the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). PYY and PY gene expression was predominantly detected within the sea bass forebrain. Telencephalic PYY gene expression was restricted to the ventral part of the ventral telencephalon, and no PY expression was detected in the cerebral hemispheres. Both PYY and PY mRNAs were found within the preoptic area and lateral hypothalamus. Distinct PY or PYY mRNA cell groups were localized in the pretectal area and synencephalon or posterior tubercle, respectively. Caudally, PY gene expression was found in the medial reticular formation, whereas PYY transcripts were localized within the vagal lobe. The results demonstrate that vertebrate brain expresses three NPY-related genes and further support the hypothesis that PP and PY arose by independent gene duplications from PYY. The receptor system of the NPY family as well as gene expression within the main hypophysiotropic and feeding behavior areas suggest an involvement of both peptides in the control of food intake and pituitary secretion.The Journal of Comparative Neurology 11/2000; 426(2):197-208. · 3.66 Impact Factor
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2008; 557(1):61 - 86. · 4.38 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The saccus vasculosus (SV) is a circumventricular organ of the hypothalamus of many jawed fishes whose functions have not yet been clarified. It is a vascularized neuroepithelium that consists of coronet cells, cerebrospinal fluid-contacting (CSF-c) neurons and supporting cells. To assess the organization, development and evolution of the SV, the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the neuronal markers gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; the GABA synthesizing enzyme), neuropeptide Y (NPY), neurophysin II (NPH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate-limiting catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme) and serotonin (5-HT), were investigated by immunohistochemistry in developing and adult sharks. Coronet cells showed GFAP immunoreactivity from embryos at stage 31 to adults, indicating a glial nature. GABAergic CSF-c neurons were evidenced just when the primordium of the SV becomes detectable (at stage 29). Double immunolabeling revealed colocalization of NPY and GAD in these cells. Some CSF-c cells showed TH immunoreactivity in postembryonic stages. Saccofugal GABAergic fibers formed a defined SV tract from the stage 30 and scattered neurosecretory (NPH-immunoreactive) and monoaminergic (5-HT- and TH-immunoreactive) saccopetal fibers were first detected at stages 31 and 32, respectively. The early differentiation of GABAergic neurons and the presence of a conspicuous GABAergic saccofugal system are shared by elasmobranch and teleosts (trout), suggesting that GABA plays a key function in the SV circuitry. Monoaminergic structures have not been reported in the SV of bony fishes, and were probably acquired secondarily in sharks. The existence of saccopetal monoaminergic and neurosecretory fibers reveals reciprocal connections between the SV and hypothalamic structures which have not been previously detected in teleosts.Brain Behavior and Evolution 02/2007; 70(3):187-204. · 2.89 Impact Factor