Spectral rhoZ-projection method for characterization of body fluids in computed tomography: ex vivo experiments.
ABSTRACT The identification of body fluids in computed tomography poses a major diagnostic challenge. The chemical composition of body fluids deviates only slightly from water with very similar computed tomographic (CT) values, which typically range from 0 to 100 HU. The aim of this study was to assess physical and chemical properties of different body fluids in an ex vivo setting.
A total of 44 samples of blood, blood mixed with pus, pus, bile, and urine obtained during diagnostic and therapeutic punctures were scanned at 80 and 140 kV. Data was quantitatively assessed using the spectral rhoZ-projection algorithm, which converts dual-energy CT scans into mass density (rho) and effective atomic number (Z(eff.)) information.
Attenuation values measured at 80 and 140 kV were largely overlapping. CT values allowed, to some degree, for the differentiation of bile or pus from blood or the blood/pus mixture. By applying the rhoZ-projection, most substances, except for urine, were distinguishable with only small standard deviations ranging between 0.003 and 0.007 g/cm(3) for mass density and between 0.020 and 0.043 for Z(eff.).
The rhoZ-projection method is suited to quantitatively assess mass density and effective atomic number of ex vivo body fluid samples. In clinical routine, this technique might be useful for identifying unclear fluid collections even in unenhanced computed tomography.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was performed to investigate the accuracies of the synthesized monochromatic images and effective atomic number maps obtained with the new GE Discovery CT750 HD CT scanner. A Gammex-RMI model 467 tissue characterization phantom and the CT number linearity section of a Phantom Laboratory Catphan 600 phantom were scanned using the dual energy (DE) feature on the GE CT750 HD scanner. Synthesized monochromatic images at various energies between 40 and 120 keV and effective atomic number (Z(eff)) maps were generated. Regions of interest were placed within these images/maps to measure the average monochromatic CT numbers and average Z(eff) of the materials within these phantoms. The true Z(eff) values were either supplied by the phantom manufacturer or computed using Mayneord's equation. The linear attenuation coefficients for the true CT numbers were computed using the NIST XCOM program with the input of manufacturer supplied elemental compositions and densities. The effects of small variations in the assumed true densities of the materials were also investigated. Finally, the effect of body size on the accuracies of the synthesized monochromatic CT numbers was investigated using a custom lumbar section phantom with and without an external fat-mimicking ring. Other than the Z(eff) of the simulated lung inserts in the tissue characterization phantom, which could not be measured by DECT, the Z(eff) values of all of the other materials in the tissue characterization and Catphan phantoms were accurate to 15%. The accuracies of the synthesized monochromatic CT numbers of the materials in both phantoms varied with energy and material. For the 40-120 keV range, RMS errors between the measured and true CT numbers in the Catphan are 8-25 HU when the true CT numbers were computed using the nominal plastic densities. These RMS errors improve to 3-12 HU for assumed true densities within the nominal density +/- 0.02 g/cc range. The RMS errors between the measured and true CT numbers of the tissue mimicking materials in the tissue characterization phantom over the 40-120 keV range varied from about 6 HU-248 HU and did not improve as dramatically with small changes in assumed true density. Initial tests indicate that the Z(eff) values computed with DECT on this scanner are reasonably accurate; however, the synthesized monochromatic CT numbers can be very inaccurate, especially for dense tissue mimicking materials at low energies. Furthermore, the synthesized monochromatic CT numbers of materials still depend on the amount of the surrounding tissues especially at low keV, demonstrating that the numbers are not truly monochromatic. Further research is needed to develop DE methods that produce more accurate synthesized monochromatic CT numbers.Medical Physics 04/2011; 38(4):2222-32. · 3.01 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to demonstrate that, in x-ray computed tomography (CT), more than two types of materials can be effectively separated with the use of an energy resolved photon-counting detector and classification methodology. Specifically, this applies to the case when contrast agents that contain K-absorption edges in the energy range of interest are present in the object. This separation is enabled via the use of recently developed energy resolved photon-counting detectors with multiple thresholds, which allow simultaneous measurements of the x-ray attenuation at multiple energies. To demonstrate this capability, we performed simulations and physical experiments using a six-threshold energy resolved photon-counting detector. We imaged mouse-sized cylindrical phantoms filled with several soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials and with iodine-based and gadolinium-based contrast agents. The linear attenuation coefficients were reconstructed for each material in each energy window and were visualized as scatter plots between pairs of energy windows. For comparison, a dual-kVp CT was also simulated using the same phantom materials. In this case, the linear attenuation coefficients at the lower kVp were plotted against those at the higher kVp. In both the simulations and the physical experiments, the contrast agents were easily separable from other soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials, thanks to the availability of the attenuation coefficient measurements at more than two energies provided by the energy resolved photon-counting detector. In the simulations, the amount of separation was observed to be proportional to the concentration of the contrast agents; however, this was not observed in the physical experiments due to limitations of the real detector system. We used the angle between pairs of attenuation coefficient vectors in either the 5-D space (for non-contrast-agent materials using energy resolved photon-counting acquisition) or a 2-D space (for contrast agents using energy resolved photon-counting acquisition and all materials using dual-kVp acquisition) as a measure of the degree of separation. Compared to dual-kVp techniques, an energy resolved detector provided a larger separation and the ability to separate different target materials using measurements acquired in different energy window pairs with a single x-ray exposure. We concluded that x-ray CT with an energy resolved photon-counting detector with more than two energy windows allows the separation of more than two types of materials, e.g., soft-tissue-like, bone-like, and one or more materials with K-edges in the energy range of interest. Separating material types using energy resolved photon-counting detectors has a number of advantages over dual-kVp CT in terms of the degree of separation and the number of materials that can be separated simultaneously.Medical Physics 03/2011; 38(3):1534-46. · 3.01 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent advances in computed tomography (CT) technology allow for acquisition of two CT datasets with different X-ray spectra. There are different dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) technical approaches such as: the dual-source CT, the fast kilovoltage-switching method, and the sandwich detectors technique. There are various postprocessing algorithms that are available to provide clinically relevant spectral information. There are several clinical applications of DECT that are easily accessible in the emergency setting. In this review article, we aim to provide the emergency radiologist with a discussion on how this new technology works and how some of its applications can be useful in the emergency room setting.Emergency Radiology 03/2014;