Functional and Structural Connectivity Between the Perigenual Anterior Cingulate and Amygdala in Bipolar Disorder

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 300 George Street, Suite 901, New Haven CT 06511, USA.
Biological psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 06/2009; 66(5):516-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.03.023
Source: PubMed


Abnormalities in the morphology and function of two gray matter structures central to emotional processing, the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and amygdala, have consistently been reported in bipolar disorder (BD). Evidence implicates abnormalities in their connectivity in BD. This study investigates the potential disruptions in pACC-amygdala functional connectivity and associated abnormalities in white matter that provides structural connections between the two brain regions in BD.
Thirty-three individuals with BD and 31 healthy comparison subjects (HC) participated in a scanning session during which functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during processing of face stimuli and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed. The strength of pACC-amygdala functional connections was compared between BD and HC groups, and associations between these functional connectivity measures from the fMRI scans and regional fractional anisotropy (FA) from the DTI scans were assessed.
Functional connectivity was decreased between the pACC and amygdala in the BD group compared with HC group, during the processing of fearful and happy faces (p < .005). Moreover, a significant positive association between pACC-amygdala functional coupling and FA in ventrofrontal white matter, including the region of the uncinate fasciculus, was identified (p < .005).
This study provides evidence for abnormalities in pACC-amygdala functional connectivity during emotional processing in BD. The significant association between pACC-amygdala functional connectivity and the structural integrity of white matter that contains pACC-amygdala connections suggest that disruptions in white matter connectivity may contribute to disturbances in the coordinated responses of the pACC and amygdala during emotional processing in BD.


Available from: E. Kale Edmiston
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    • "Furthermore, the cingulate region has been hypothesized to facilitate the communication between the dorsal and the ventral systems and contribute to the regulation and integration of mood, cognitive, somatic, and autonomic responses [37]. The cingulate cortex has connections with the ventral network anatomy such as the limbic structures and facilitates top-down process of voluntary suppression/inhibition of an immediate response towards external stimuli [35, 42–45]. Disruption of white mater integrity in the cingulate gyrus may underlie increased biases towards negative and emotional stimuli or faces and diminished prefrontal modulation of affect exhibited in BD patients [37, 39]. "
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    12/2013; 2013(4):635131. DOI:10.1155/2013/635131
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    • "Connectivity changes have also been reported in several clinical populations (Quigley et al., 2001; Lowe et al., 2002; Irwin et al., 2004; Saini et al., 2004; Haas et al., 2006; Waites et al., 2006; Hoffman et al., 2007; Schafer et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009; Freilich and Gaillard, 2010; Myers et al., 2010; Bai et al., 2011; Killory et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2011a,b; Bagshaw and Cavanna, 2012; de Groot et al., 2012) and there are now more than 100 publications related to connectivity measures in epilepsy patients. There is evidence that correlations between time-varying BOLD signals reflect intrinsic functional connections in that they are present when subjects are both awake and under anesthesia (Vincent et al., 2007; Martuzzi et al., 2010, 2011) and they are highly reproducible (Shehzad et al., 2009). "
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