Article

Hematopoietic- and neurologic-expressed sequence 1 (Hn1) depletion in B16.F10 melanoma cells promotes a differentiated phenotype that includes increased melanogenesis and cell cycle arrest.

Departments of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610-0267, USA.
Differentiation (Impact Factor: 2.86). 06/2009; 78(1):35-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.diff.2009.04.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Hematopoietic- and neurologic-expressed sequence 1 (Hn1) gene encodes a small protein that is highly conserved among species. Hn1 expression is upregulated in regenerating neural tissues, including the axotomized adult rodent facial motor nerve and dedifferentiating retinal pigment epithelial cells of the Japanese newt. It is also expressed in numerous tissues during embryonic development as well as in regions of the adult brain that exhibit high plasticity. Hn1 has also been reported as a marker for human ovarian carcinoma and it is expressed in high-grade human gliomas. This study was directed toward understanding the function of Hn1 in a murine melanoma cell line. Hn1 mRNA and protein were identified in B16.F10 cells and in tumors formed from these cells. Inhibition of Hn1 protein expression with siRNA increased melanogenesis. Hn1-depleted cells expressed higher levels of the melanogenic proteins tyrosinase and Trp2 and an increased interaction between actin and Rab27a. The in vitro cell growth rate of Hn1-depleted cells was significantly reduced due to G1/S cell cycle arrest. This was consistent with a reduction in the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein as well as lower levels of p27 and increased expression of p21. Decreased expression of c-Met, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, was also detected in the Hn1-depleted cells, however HGF-dependent stimulation of phosphorylated-ERK was unaffected. Hn1 depletion also led to increased basal levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, while basal ERK phosphorylation was reduced. Moreover, Hn1-depleted cells had reduced expression of transcription factors MITF and USF-1, and increased expression of TFE3. These data, coupled with reports on Hn1 expression in regeneration and development, suggest that Hn1 functions as a suppressor of differentiation in cells undergoing repair or proliferation.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
95 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that hematological and neurological expressed 1 (HN1) is a ubiquitously expressed, EGF-regulated gene. Expression of HN1 in prostate cell lines down-regulates PI3K-dependent Akt activation. Here, we investigate whether HN1 is regulated by androgens through the putative androgen response elements (AREs) found in its promoter. Knockdown of HN1 expression by siRNA silencing leads to an increase in Akt((S473)) phosphorylation, resulting in the translocation of androgen receptor (AR) to the nucleus; these effects can be abrogated by the non-specific Akt inhibitor LY294002 but not by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Furthermore, HN1 overexpression correlates with an increase in ubiquitination-mediated degradation (a consequence of the decrease in S213/210 phosphorylation of AR), ultimately resulting in the down-regulation of AR-mediated expression of the KLK3, KLK4, NKX3.1 and STAMP2 genes. We also found that HN1 overexpression suppresses colony formation as well as R1881-mediated growth in LNCaP cells, while it has the opposite effect (increasing colony formation but not proliferation) in PC-3 and DU145 cells. Therefore, we suggest that HN1 maintains a balance between the androgen-regulated nuclear translocation of AR and steady-state Akt phosphorylation, predominantly in the absence of androgens. If so, the balance between cell growth and EGF- and AR-signaling must be tightly regulated by HN1. This work has important implications for prostate cancer research, as AR, EGFR and HN1 are known to be highly expressed in prostate adenocarcinomas.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 12/2011; 350(1):107-17. · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma (melanoma malignum) is one of the most dangerous types of tumor. It is very difficult to cure. In recent years, a lot of attention has been given to chemoprevention. This method uses natural and synthetic compounds to interfere with and inhibit the process of carcinogenesis. In this study, a new treatment strategy was proposed consisting of a combination of 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC), an activator of melanogenesis, and valproic acid (VPA), a well-known drug that is one of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis). In conjunction with 1 mM VPA, all of the tested concentrations of DMC (10–150 μM) significantly decreased the proliferation of A-375 cells. VPA and DMC also induced the synthesis of melanin and the formation of dendrite and star-shaped cells. Tyrosinase gene expression and tyrosinase activity significantly increased in response to VPA treatment. Pyrolysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was used to investigate the structure of the isolated melanin. This showed that the quantitative and qualitative components of melanin degradation products are dependent on the type of applied melanogenesis inductor. Products derived from eumelanin were detected in the pyrolytic profile of melanin isolated from A-375 cells stimulated with DMC. Thermal degradation of melanin isolated from melanoma cells after exposure to VPA or a mixture of VPA and DMC revealed the additional presence of products derived from pheomelanin.
    Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters 12/2012; 17(4). · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As the molecular mechanism of β-catenin deregulation is not well understood, and stabilized β-catenin is known to translocate into the nucleus and activate genes for proliferation, a novel regulatory factor, hematological and neurological expressed 1 (HN1), for Akt-GSK3β-β-catenin axis is reported here. In our studies, HN1 gene structure was characterized. HN1 expression was found to be epidermal growth factor-responsive in PC-3 cells, and protein expression was also upregulated in PC-3 and LNCaP but not in DU145 cells. Additionally, HN1 was found to be downregulated by the specific AKT inhibitor wortmannin but not with PI3K or MAPK inhibitors, LY294002 and PD98059, respectively, in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells. Further, siRNA-mediated knockdown of HN1 resulted in considerable increase in Akt((S473)) and GSK3β((S9),(Y216)) phosphorylations; moreover, subsequent accumulation of β-catenin, increase in c-myc expression, and nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1 were observed in PC-3 cells. Knockdown of HN1 also resulted in prolongation of G(1) phase in cell cycle, increasing tetraploidy, presumably because of cells escaping from abnormal mitosis in PC-3 cells. Consistently, overexpression of HN1 reversed the cell-cycle-specific observations, resulted in accumulation of cells in G(2)/M, and reduced the proliferation rate, which were investigated using flow cytometry and methylthiazol tetrazolium assays. As activating mutations of β-catenin have been demonstrated in late-stage tumors, and β-catenin stabilization was correlated with poor prognosis in previous reports, epidermal growth factor-upregulated HN1 expression might have a role in deregulating the AKT-GSK3β((S9))-mediated signaling as a novel compensating mechanism.
    DNA and cell biology 02/2011; 30(6):419-29. · 2.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
23 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014