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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has large impact on direct healthcare costs, especially those derived from hospitalization. This study determines impact, clinical characteristics, outcome and economic consequences of CAP in the adult (>=18 years) population attended in 6 primary-care centers and 2 hospitals in Badalona (Spain) over a two-year period. METHODS: Medical records were identified by codes from the International Classification of Diseases in databases (January 1st 2008-December 31st 2009). RESULTS: A total of 581 patients with CAP (55.6% males, mean age 57.5 years) were identified. Prevalence: 0.64% (95%CI: 0.5%-0.7%); annual incidence: 3.0 cases/1,000 inhabitants (95%CI: 0.2-0.5). Up to 241 (41.5%) required hospitalization. Hospital admission was associated (p<0.002) with liver disease (OR=5.9), stroke (OR=3.6), dementia (OR=3.5), COPD (OR=2.9), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.9) and age (OR=1.1 per year). Length of stay (4.4+/-0.3 days) was associated with PSI score (beta=0.195), in turn associated with age (r=0.827) and Charlson index (r=0.497). Microbiological tests were performed in all inpatients but only in 35% outpatients. Among patients with microbiological tests, results were positive in 51.7%, and among them, S pneumoniae was identified in 57.5% cases. Time to recovery was 29.9+/-17.2 days. Up to 7.5% inpatients presented complications, 0.8% required ICU admission and 19.1% readmission. Inhospital mortality rate was 2.5%. Adjusted mean total cost was [euro sign]2,332.4/inpatient and [euro sign]698.6/outpatient (p<0.001). Patients with pneumococcal CAP (n=107) showed higher comorbidity and hospitalization (76.6%), higher PSI score, larger time to recovery and higher overall costs among inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies preventing CAP, thus reducing hospital admissions could likely produce substantial costs savings in addition to the reduction of CAP burden.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2012; 12(1):283. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study compares the ability of the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) and the British Thoracic Society CURB-65 and CRB-65 rules in predicting short-term mortality among elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It is a population-based study including all people over 65 years old with a radiographically confirmed CAP in the region of Tarragona (Spain) between 2002 and 2008. Treatment setting and clinical variables were considered for each patient. PSI, CURB-65 and CRB-65 scores were calculated at the moment of diagnosis and 30-day mortality was considered as a main dependent variable. The rules were compared based on sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Of the total 590 CAP cases, mortality rate was 13.6% (15.3% in hospitalised and 1.4% in outpatient cases; p = 0.001). Mortality increased with increasing PSI score (None in class II, 6,9% in class III, 14,4% in class IV and 29,5% in class V), CURB-65 score (7.5%, 14.5%, 26.7%, 53.3% and 100% for scores 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively) and CRB-65 score (6.6%, 26.1%, 40.5% and 50% for scores 1,2,3 and 4 respectively). The three rules performed too similarly to predict 30-day mortality, with a ROC area of 0.727 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67-0.79] for the PSI, 0.672 (95% CI: 0.61-0.74) for the CURB-65, and 0.719 (95% CI: 0.65-0.78) for the CRB-65. Our data shows that the analysed rules perform equally well among elderly people with CAP which supports the recommendation for using the simplified CRB-65 severity score among elderly patients in primary care or emergency visits.
    International Journal of Clinical Practice 09/2011; 65(11):1165-72. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of the classic CRB65 (confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure and age ≥65 years) vs the modified CRB-75 for the severity assessment of patients 65 years or older with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tarragona Health Region. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 350 patients ≥65 years with a radiographically confirmed CAP (hospitalized or outpatient) during 2008-2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The CRB-65 score (confusion; respiratory rate ≥30; systolic blood pressure<90mmHg or diastolic ≤ 60mmHg; age ≥65 years) and the modified CRB-75 (similar criteria but age ≥75 years) were calculated at the time of diagnosis, and 30-day mortality was considered as the main dependent variable. RESULTS: The overall 30-day mortality rate was 13.1% (4% in outpatient CAP and 15% in hospitalized CAP). According to CRB-65, mortality was 7,7% with a score of 1, 22.5% with a score of 2, and 50% with a score of 3 (no cases with a score of 4). Mortality also directly increased according to CRB-75, being 3,2% with a score of 0, 9,7% with a score of 1, 30.0% with a score of 2, and 45.5% with a score of 3. The discriminative value of both CRB65 and CRB75 rules to classify risk of short-term mortality among our study population was acceptable, with a better area under receive operating characteristic curve (ROC) for CRB75 than for CRB-65 (0,735 vs 0,681; P<.01). CONCLUSION: Both CRB-65 and CRB-75 scales are an acceptable tool to classify mortality risk among elderly patients with CAP. However, CRB-75 can be more useful for evaluating patients over 65 years with CAP.
    Atención Primaria 01/2013; · 0.96 Impact Factor