[The influences of camel milk on the immune response of chronic hepatitis B patients].
ABSTRACT To investigate the influences of camel milk on the immune response of the chronic hepatitis B patients and its possible mechanism.
After drinking camel milk for one year, 44 chronic hepatitis B patients were observed and the HBV-DNA, hepatitis B virus markers, ALT, IL-4 and INF-gamma levels in serum were detected. 60 chronic hepatitis B patients without any interventions for 1 year were taken as control.
The level of Th1-type cytokine IFN-gamma in camel milk drinking group was significantly higher than that in the non-drinking camel milk group (P<0.05), however, the level of Th2-type cytokines IL-4 in camel milk drinking group was significantly lower than that in the non-drinking camel milk group (P<0.01). Both IFN-gamma and IL-4 levels in camel milk drinking group were near to those in the normal control group. The HBV-DNA negative rate of the camel milk drinking group (90.91%) was significantly higher than that of the non-drinking group (3.23%) (P<0.01). The HBsAg negative rates of the camel milk drinking group (54.55%) was also higher than that of the non-drinking group (1.61%)(P<0.01).The ALT level of 44 cases in the camel milk drinking group (100%)and 7 cases in the non-drinking group(11.29%) turned back to the normal level, there was a significant difference between the two group (P<0.01).
Camel milk regulates the expression of Th1/Th2-type cytokines, and corrects the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine network, which could strengthen the cellular immune response, inhibit the replication of virus DNA, and promote the recovery of the chronic hepatitis B patients.
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ABSTRACT: Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding protein from the transferrin family has been reported to have numerous functions. Even though Lf was first isolated from milk, it is also found in most exocrine secretions and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity reports on lactoferrin identified its significance in host defense against infection and extreme inflammation. Anticarcinogenic reports on lactoferrin make this protein even more valuable. This review is focused on the structural configuration of iron-containing and iron-free forms of lactoferrin obtained from different sources such as goat, camel and bovine. Apart for emphasizing on the specific beneficial properties of lactoferrin from each of these sources, the general antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of lactoferrin are discussed here. Implementation of nanomedicinial strategies that enhance the bioactive function of lactoferrin are also discussed, along with information on lactoferrin in clinical trials.Molecules 05/2015; 20(6):9703-9731. DOI:10.3390/molecules20069703 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extensive studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathology of several neurological diseases, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD); those studies proposed that GSH and antioxidant enzymes have a pathophysiological role in autism. Furthermore, camel milk has emerged to have potential therapeutic effects in autism. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of camel milk consumption on oxidative stress biomarkers in autistic children, by measuring the plasma levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidase before and 2 weeks after camel milk consumption, using the ELISA technique. All measured parameters exhibited significant increase after camel milk consumption (P < 0.5). These findings suggest that camel milk could play an important role in decreasing oxidative stress by alteration of antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant molecules levels, as well as the improvement of autistic behaviour as demonstrated by the improved Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS).Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2013; 2013:602834. DOI:10.1155/2013/602834 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The potential effect of camel milk (CM) against gentamicin (GM) induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p.), and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) activity decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Administration of CM significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST) activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent.Journal of Toxicology 12/2014; 2014:917608. DOI:10.1155/2014/917608