[The influences of camel milk on the immune response of chronic hepatitis B patients].
ABSTRACT To investigate the influences of camel milk on the immune response of the chronic hepatitis B patients and its possible mechanism.
After drinking camel milk for one year, 44 chronic hepatitis B patients were observed and the HBV-DNA, hepatitis B virus markers, ALT, IL-4 and INF-gamma levels in serum were detected. 60 chronic hepatitis B patients without any interventions for 1 year were taken as control.
The level of Th1-type cytokine IFN-gamma in camel milk drinking group was significantly higher than that in the non-drinking camel milk group (P<0.05), however, the level of Th2-type cytokines IL-4 in camel milk drinking group was significantly lower than that in the non-drinking camel milk group (P<0.01). Both IFN-gamma and IL-4 levels in camel milk drinking group were near to those in the normal control group. The HBV-DNA negative rate of the camel milk drinking group (90.91%) was significantly higher than that of the non-drinking group (3.23%) (P<0.01). The HBsAg negative rates of the camel milk drinking group (54.55%) was also higher than that of the non-drinking group (1.61%)(P<0.01).The ALT level of 44 cases in the camel milk drinking group (100%)and 7 cases in the non-drinking group(11.29%) turned back to the normal level, there was a significant difference between the two group (P<0.01).
Camel milk regulates the expression of Th1/Th2-type cytokines, and corrects the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine network, which could strengthen the cellular immune response, inhibit the replication of virus DNA, and promote the recovery of the chronic hepatitis B patients.
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ABSTRACT: The milk of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) reportedly offers medicinal benefits, perhaps because of its unique bioactive components. Milk proteins were determined by (1) two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass mapping and (2) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Over 200 proteins were identified: some known camel proteins including heavy-chain immunoglobulins and others exhibiting regions of exact homology with proteins from other species. Indigenous peptides were also identified following isolation and concentration by two strategies: (1) gel-eluted liquid fraction entrapment electrophoresis and (2) small-scale electrophoretic separation. Extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and peptides identified by matching strategies, by de novo sequencing and by applying a sequence tag tool requiring similarity to the proposed sequence, but not an exact match. A plethora of protein cleavage products including some novel peptides were characterized. These studies demonstrate that camel milk is a rich source of peptides, some of which may serve as nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Biological Mass Spectrometry 07/2013; 48(7):779-94. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a spectrum of clinical illness and morphological changes that range from fatty liver, hepatic inflammation and necrosis to progressive fibrosis. For the etiology of ALD, oxidative stress, increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis have been described. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of camel's milk (CM) in alleviating alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity as a model of clinical liver illness. Male rats were grouped into four groups from which one group received normal saline and served as control. Groups from 2 to 4 received a daily oral dose of 56% ethanol for 4 weeks. Group 2 served as untreated control while groups 3 and 4 were respectively treated with CM either in a prophylactic or a curative approach. Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, as well as cholesterol levels were estimated in the serum. Malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels along with caspase-3 activity were determined in liver tissue homogenate. A histopathological analysis of liver tissue was also achieved. Results showed amelioration of all tested parameters following administration of CM. Conclusively, treatment with camel's milk alleviates alcohol-associated hazards and protects hepatic tissue from alcohol-induced toxicity.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 01/2012; 50(5):1377-83. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extensive studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathology of several neurological diseases, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD); those studies proposed that GSH and antioxidant enzymes have a pathophysiological role in autism. Furthermore, camel milk has emerged to have potential therapeutic effects in autism. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of camel milk consumption on oxidative stress biomarkers in autistic children, by measuring the plasma levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidase before and 2 weeks after camel milk consumption, using the ELISA technique. All measured parameters exhibited significant increase after camel milk consumption (P < 0.5). These findings suggest that camel milk could play an important role in decreasing oxidative stress by alteration of antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant molecules levels, as well as the improvement of autistic behaviour as demonstrated by the improved Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS).Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:602834. · 1.72 Impact Factor