Article

Canine leishmaniosis in South America

Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy. .
Parasites & Vectors (Impact Factor: 3.25). 02/2009; 2 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S1. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-2-S1-S1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT : Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans.

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Available from: Filipe Dantas-Torres, Aug 01, 2015
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    • "The development of an effective CVL vaccine represents a cost-effective tool for interrupting the transmission cycle and controlling zoonotic VL infection in humans. CVL is widespread throughout South America [12] and the Mediterranean [13] where L. infantum is the most significant causative agent of disease. "
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    • "Recent studies have highlighted the spreading of the leishmaniases, as they accompany the movement of the phlebotomine vectors into previously free areas as suggested for the spread of canine leishmaniasis from southern to northern Italy (Otranto et al., 2009a) and from northern to southern Brazil (Tomaz-Soccol et al., 2009). Indeed, canine leishmaniasis is now well established in South America as far south as northern Argentina (Salomon et al., 2008; Dantas-Torres, 2009). Furthermore, global warming could prompt the establishment of canine leishmaniasis in areas such as the United Kingdom, where the vectors are currently absent, but where Leishmania infantum-infected dogs that had travelled to endemic areas are present (Shaw et al., 2009). "
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    • ". L. infantum is the causative agent of canine visceral leishmaniasis, the most important form in South America, where dogs are its main reservoir [6]. L. braziliensis is the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs in this region [7]. "
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