Canine leishmaniosis in South America

Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy. .
Parasites & Vectors (Impact Factor: 3.25). 02/2009; 2 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S1. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-2-S1-S1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT : Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic "puzzle", as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs). These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders - Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera - responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild.
    12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2014.08.004
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this work we present the preparation and functionalization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the detection of pres-ence of gp63 glycoprotein in the surface of Leishmania genus parasites. AuNPs were prepared by induced laser ablation in a clean and biologically suitable media. The nanoparticles were functionalized with anti-gp63 lgG antibody in order to study the interaction with the glycoprotein component gp63 (63 kDa) present on the membrane surface of Leishma-nia genus parasites. The functionalized AuNPs showed potential as a spectrometric indicator of the parasite existence, both by the detection of the presence of the gp63 in solution and through the specific interaction with the parasites in vitro. The specificity of the study opens a new line of research on the use of modified nanoparticles in the development of a fast and easy assay for Leishmaniosis diagnostics.
    American Journal of Analytical Chemistry 07/2013; 4. DOI:10.4236/ajac.2013.47A014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Leishmania spp. are zoonotic protozoans that infect humans and other mammals such as dogs. The most significant causative species in dogs is L. infantum. In dogs, leishmaniosis is a potentially progressive, chronic disease with varying clinical outcomes. Autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis have not previously been reported in the Nordic countries.ResultsIn this report we describe the first diagnosed autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis in Finland, in which transmission via a suitable arthropod vector was absent. Two Finnish boxers that had never been in endemic areas of Leishmania spp., had never received blood transfusions, nor were infested by ectoparasites were diagnosed with leishmaniosis. Another dog was found with elevated Leishmania antibodies. A fourth boxer dog that had been in Spain was considered to be the source of these infections. Transmission occurred through biting wounds and semen, however, transplacental infection in one of the dogs could not be ruled out.Two of the infected dogs developed a serious disease and were euthanized and sent for necropsy. The first one suffered from membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and the second one had a chronic systemic disease. Leishmania sp. was detected from tissues by PCR and/or IHC in both dogs. The third infected dog was serologically positive for Leishmania sp. but remained free of clinical signs.Conclusions This case report shows that imported Leishmania-infected dogs may pose a risk for domestic dogs, even without suitable local arthropod vectors.
    Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 12/2014; 56(1):84. DOI:10.1186/s13028-014-0084-9 · 1.00 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 31, 2014