Canine leishmaniosis in South America

Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy. .
Parasites & Vectors (Impact Factor: 3.25). 02/2009; 2 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S1. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-2-S1-S1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT : Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans.

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Available from: Filipe Dantas-Torres, Aug 01, 2015
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    • "The development of an effective CVL vaccine represents a cost-effective tool for interrupting the transmission cycle and controlling zoonotic VL infection in humans. CVL is widespread throughout South America [12] and the Mediterranean [13] where L. infantum is the most significant causative agent of disease. "
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is a disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to serious disfigurement and fatal systemic infection. Resistance to infection is associated with a T-helper-1 immune response that activates macrophages to kill the intracellular parasite in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. Conversely, disease progression is generally associated with a T-helper-2 response that activates humoral immunity. Current control is based on chemotherapeutic treatments which are expensive, toxic and associated with high relapse and resistance rates. Vaccination remains the best hope for control of all forms of the disease, and the development of a safe, effective and affordable antileishmanial vaccine is a critical global public-health priority. Extensive evidence from studies in animal models indicates that solid protection can be achieved by immunization with defined subunit vaccines or live-attenuated strains of Leishmania. However, to date, no vaccine is available despite substantial efforts by many laboratories. Major impediments in Leishmania vaccine development include: lack of adequate funding from national and international agencies, problems related to the translation of data from animal models to human disease, and the transition from the laboratory to the field. Furthermore, a thorough understanding of protective immune responses and generation and maintenance of the immunological memory, an important but least-studied aspect of antiparasitic vaccine development, during Leishmania infection is needed. This review focuses on the progress of the search for an effective vaccine against human and canine leishmaniasis.
    03/2013; 27(2):85-102. DOI:10.7555/JBR.27.20120064
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    • "Recent studies have highlighted the spreading of the leishmaniases, as they accompany the movement of the phlebotomine vectors into previously free areas as suggested for the spread of canine leishmaniasis from southern to northern Italy (Otranto et al., 2009a) and from northern to southern Brazil (Tomaz-Soccol et al., 2009). Indeed, canine leishmaniasis is now well established in South America as far south as northern Argentina (Salomon et al., 2008; Dantas-Torres, 2009). Furthermore, global warming could prompt the establishment of canine leishmaniasis in areas such as the United Kingdom, where the vectors are currently absent, but where Leishmania infantum-infected dogs that had travelled to endemic areas are present (Shaw et al., 2009). "
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    • ". L. infantum is the causative agent of canine visceral leishmaniasis, the most important form in South America, where dogs are its main reservoir [6]. L. braziliensis is the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs in this region [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Canine Leishmaniasis is widespread in various Mexican states, where different species of Leishmania have been isolated from dogs. In the present study, we describe the detection of L. braziliensis, L. infantum, and L. mexicana in serum of dogs from the states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). A total of 412 sera were analyzed by ELISA using the total extract of the parasite and the iron superoxide dismutase excreted by different trypanosomatids as antigens. We found the prevalence of L. braziliensis to be 7.52%, L. infantum to be 6.07%, and L. mexicana to be 20.63%, in the dog population studied. The results obtained with ELISA using iron superoxide dismutase as the antigen were confirmed by western blot analysis with its greater sensitivity, and the agreement between the two techniques was very high.
    The Scientific World Journal 05/2012; 2012:945871. DOI:10.1100/2012/945871 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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