Eye Movements When Looking at Print Advertisements: The Goal of the Viewer Matters.

Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
Applied Cognitive Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.67). 07/2008; 22(5):697-707. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1389
Source: PubMed


Viewers looked at print advertisements as their eye movements were recorded. Half of them were asked to rate how much they liked each ad (for convenience, we will generally use the term 'ad' from this point on), while the other half were asked to rate the effectiveness of each ad. Previous research indicated that viewers who were asked to consider purchasing products in the ads looked at the text earlier and more often than the picture part of the ad. In contrast, viewers in the present experiment looked at the picture part of the ad earlier and longer than the text. The results indicate quite clearly that the goal of the viewer very much influences where (and for how long) viewers look at different parts of ads, but also indicate that the nature of the ad per se matters.

Download full-text


Available from: Caren M Rotello, Oct 04, 2015
25 Reads
    • "In order to measure visual attention for the endorser, we used eye-tracking technology. Modern eye trackers present stimuli, such as commercials, advertisements or computer games, on a computer screen and track participant's eye movements with infrared light and specialized cameras (Pieters and Wedel, 2007; Rayner et al, 2008). The technique allows researchers to determine what exact point of the ad or commercial was seen at any given moment in time. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research on celebrity endorsement demonstrates that attractive celebrity endorsers can lead to better attitudes toward the ad and brand evaluations. However, this study suggests that an analysis of celebrity endorsement remains incomplete without considering an important initial stage of information processing, visual attention directed toward the endorser. Measurements from eye-tracking technology combined with a survey show that consumers/' visual attention (viewing time) of the endorser is positively related to the endorser/'s attractiveness and attitude toward the ad. Further, mediation analysis and partial least square-based structural equation modeling shows that attitude toward the ad fully mediates the relationship between endorser attractiveness and brand attitudes. Being the first study in investigating how visual attention is related to perceptions of celebrity endorser attractiveness, attitude toward the ad and brand evaluations, this article adds to the existing body of knowledge
    Journal of Brand Management 11/2014; DOI:10.1057/bm.2014.24
  • Source
    • "type of information F(1,6) = 14.61, p = 0.009, η 2 p = 0.71. This finding is typical and has also been reported in previous studies (Rayner et al., 2001, 2008). The type of product and the interaction remained non-significant, "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We review the literature on the relation between narcissism and consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is sometimes guided by self-related motives (e.g., self-enhancement) rather than by rational economic considerations. Narcissism is a case in point. This personality trait reflects a self-centered, self-aggrandizing, dominant, and manipulative orientation. Narcissists are characterized by exhibitionism and vanity, and they see themselves as superior and entitled. To validate their grandiose self-image, narcissists purchase high-prestige products (i.e., luxurious, exclusive, flashy), show greater interest in the symbolic than utilitarian value of products, and distinguish themselves positively from others via their materialistic possessions. Our review lays the foundation for a novel methodological approach in which we explore how narcissism influences eye movement behavior during consumer decision-making. We conclude with a description of our experimental paradigm and report preliminary results. Our findings will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying narcissists' conspicuous purchases. They will also likely have implications for theories of personality, consumer behavior, marketing, advertising, and visual cognition.
    Frontiers in Psychology 03/2014; 5:232. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00232 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The literature search revealed 19 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria of reporting surface size effects on visual attention operationalized by eye movement measures. Most of the studies were conducted using print advertisements, focusing on brand, pictorial, and text elements (Lohse, 1997; Rosbergen et al., 1997; Janiszewski, 1998; Wedel and Pieters, 2000; Rayner et al., 2001, 2008; Pieters et al., 2002, 2007, 2010; Pieters and Wedel, 2004, 2007; Ryu et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009; Boerman et al., 2011). Participants were asked to leaf through magazines while their fixations on the target advertisement were recorded by eye tracking equipment. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: That surface size has an impact on attention has been well-known in advertising research for almost a century; however, theoretical accounts of this effect have been sparse. To address this issue, we review studies on surface size effects on eye movements in this paper. While most studies find that large objects are more likely to be fixated, receive more fixations, and are fixated faster than small objects, a comprehensive explanation of this effect is still lacking. To bridge the theoretical gap, we relate the findings from this review to three theories of surface size effects suggested in the literature: a linear model based on the assumption of random fixations (Lohse, 1997), a theory of surface size as visual saliency (Pieters etal., 2007), and a theory based on competition for attention (CA; Janiszewski, 1998). We furthermore suggest a fourth model - demand for attention - which we derive from the theory of CA by revising the underlying model assumptions. In order to test the models against each other, we reanalyze data from an eye tracking study investigating surface size and saliency effects on attention. The reanalysis revealed little support for the first three theories while the demand for attention model showed a much better alignment with the data. We conclude that surface size effects may best be explained as an increase in object signal strength which depends on object size, number of objects in the visual scene, and object distance to the center of the scene. Our findings suggest that advertisers should take into account how objects in the visual scene interact in order to optimize attention to, for instance, brands and logos.
    Frontiers in Psychology 12/2013; 4:902. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00902 · 2.80 Impact Factor
Show more