Diet-induced renal changes in Zucker rats are ameliorated by the superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL.
ABSTRACT Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal failure in the United States. The obese Zucker rat (OZR; fa/fa) is a commonly used model of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and of the nephropathy and renal oxidative stress commonly seen in these disorders. Heterozygous lean Zucker rats (LZRs; fa/+) are susceptible to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and MetS. The present study was designed to investigate whether 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL), a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, could alleviate the renal effects of MetS in OZR and LZR fed a HFD, which resembles the typical "Western" diet. OZR and LZR were fed a HFD (OZR-HFD and LZR-HFD) or regular diet (OZR-RD and LZR-RD) and allowed free access to drinking water or water containing 1 mmol/l TEMPOL for 10 weeks. When compared to OZR-RD animals, OZR-HFD animals exhibited significantly higher levels of total renal cortical reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, plasma lipids, insulin, C-reactive protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), and urinary albumin excretion (P < 0.05); these changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein levels (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of desmin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB), and NAD(P)H oxidase-1 (NOX-1) were significantly higher in the renal cortical tissues of OZR-HFD animals; NFkappaB p65 DNA binding activity as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay was also significantly higher in these animals. The same trends were noted in LZR-HFD animals. Our data demonstrate that TEMPOL may prove beneficial in treating the early stages of the nephropathy often associated with MetS.
Article: High glucose level and free fatty acid stimulate reactive oxygen species production through protein kinase C--dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in cultured vascular cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed that vascular cells can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NAD(P)H oxidase, which may be involved in vascular injury. However, the pathological role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in diabetes or in the insulin-resistant state remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of high glucose level and free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate) on ROS production in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Exposure of cultured SMCs or ECs to a high glucose level (400 mg/dl) for 72 h significantly increased the free radical production compared with low glucose level exposure (100 mg/dl). Treatment of the cells for 3 h with phorbol myristic acid (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, also increased free radical production. This increase was restored to the control value by diphenylene iodonium, a NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, suggesting ROS production through PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase. The increase in free radical production by high glucose level exposure was completely restored by both diphenylene iodonium and GF109203X, a PKC-specific inhibitor. Exposure to palmitate (200 micromol/l) also increased free radical production, which was concomitant with increases in diacylglycerol level and PKC activity. Again, this increase was restored to the control value by both diphenylene iodonium and GF109203X. The present results suggest that both high glucose level and palmitate may stimulate ROS production through PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in both vascular SMCs and ECs. This finding may be involved in the excessive acceleration of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes and insulin resistance syndrome.Diabetes 12/2000; 49(11):1939-45. · 8.29 Impact Factor