Mesenchymal stem cells can affect solid organ allograft survival.
ABSTRACT It has recently been recognized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult bone marrow are able to modify the alloimmune response in vitro and in vivo. MSCs can be expanded into large quantities in culture, thereby facilitating potential future applications in solid organ transplantation. To develop novel MSC-based antirejection treatments, the mechanism behind the immunomodulatory ability of MSCs has to be elucidated further. At present, a variety of possible in vitro effects of MSCs on immune system effector cells have been reported, but little is known about their in vivo properties. Here, we discuss recent findings regarding the influence of MSCs on different effector cell populations in vitro and summarize the available data describing their in vivo properties.
Article: Nephrotoxic aspects of cyclosporine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Over the last 20 years cyclosporine (CsA) has improved the survival of kidney, heart, and liver transplants. However, with increasing use, evidence has accumulated that CsA therapy carries a variety of side effects, the most important being renal toxicity. CsA can lead to a wide spectrum of renal function impairments, including a marked and rapidly reversible decrease in renal hemodynamics (acute CsA nephrotoxicity), and a chronic form of renal damage that potentially progress irreversibly to end-stage renal disease (chronic CsA nephrotoxicity). All these manifestations are the consequence of the drug toxic effects on renal vessels and the tubulointerstitium. A proper diagnosis of CsA toxicity at early stages, the combination of low CsA doses with non-nephrotoxic immunosuppressants, and the development of more feasible strategies to monitor daily CsA exposure may contribute to a better CsA management, improve quality of life of transplant recipients, and prolong graft survival.Transplantation Proceedings 04/2004; 36(2 Suppl):234S-239S. · 0.95 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) generated from bone marrow (BM) precursor cells of C57BL/6 (B6.WT) mice and cultured in the presence of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor differentiate to mature BM-DCs spontaneously. These mature DCs are characterized by high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, CD40, and CD86 on their surface. To analyze the involvement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the related cytokine lymphotoxin (LT)alpha in DC maturation, we studied the development of DCs from the BM of B6.TNF(-/-), B6.LTalpha(-/-), and B6.TNF/LTalpha(-/-) mice and compared it to B6.WT mice. Although the development of BM precursor cells to the level of immature DCs (CD11c(+), MHC class II(low), CD40(low), and CD86(low)) was equivalent in all genotypes, B6.TNF(-/-) and B6.TNF/LTalpha(-/-) cells showed an impaired capacity to differentiate to mature DCs. In contrast, mature BM-DCs generated from LTalpha-negative, immature DCs developed like B6.WT cells. Further studies revealed that once matured, the phenotype of all tested genotypes was comparable. They expressed high levels of CD40 and CD86, were exclusively positive for the chemokine receptor (CCR)7 but negative for CCR5 and CCR2, and were able to enter the paracortex of draining lymph nodes. The limited maturation of TNF-deficient BM-DCs could be restored by mixing TNF-negative with TNF-positive Ly5.1 BM cells, and maturation of B6.WT DCs could be blocked with an anti-TNF monoclonal antibody. The substitution of B6.TNF(-/-) BM cells with recombinant TNF revealed promotion or suppression of BM-DC maturation depending on the point of time of TNF addition.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 09/2003; 74(2):216-22. · 4.57 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been recently shown to inhibit T-cell proliferation to polyclonal stimuli. We characterized the effect of MSCs of bone marrow origin on the T-cell response of naive and memory T cells to their cognate antigenic epitopes. The immune response to murine male transplantation antigens, HY, was selected because the peptide identity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction of the immunodominant epitopes are known. C57BL/6 female mice immunized with male cells were the source of memory T cells, whereas C6 mice transgenic for HY-specific T-cell receptor provided naive T cells. Responder cells were stimulated in vitro with male spleen cells or HY peptides in the presence or absence of MSCs. MSCs inhibited HY-specific naive and memory T cells in a dose-dependent fashion and affected cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and the number of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing HY peptide-specific T cells. However, the MSC inhibitory effect did not selectively target antigen-reactive T cells. When MSCs were added to the T-cell cultures in a Transwell system or MSCs were replaced by MSC culture supernatant, the inhibitory activity was abrogated. T-cell reactivity was also restored if MSCs were removed from the cultures. The expression of MHC molecules and the presence in culture of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or of CD4(+)/CD25(+) regulatory T cells were not required for MSCs to inhibit. We conclude that MSCs inhibit naive and memory T-cell responses to their cognate antigens. Overall our data suggest that MSCs physically hinder T cells from the contact with APCs in a noncognate fashion.Blood 06/2003; 101(9):3722-9. · 9.06 Impact Factor