Mesenchymal stem cells can affect solid organ allograft survival.
ABSTRACT It has recently been recognized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult bone marrow are able to modify the alloimmune response in vitro and in vivo. MSCs can be expanded into large quantities in culture, thereby facilitating potential future applications in solid organ transplantation. To develop novel MSC-based antirejection treatments, the mechanism behind the immunomodulatory ability of MSCs has to be elucidated further. At present, a variety of possible in vitro effects of MSCs on immune system effector cells have been reported, but little is known about their in vivo properties. Here, we discuss recent findings regarding the influence of MSCs on different effector cell populations in vitro and summarize the available data describing their in vivo properties.
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ABSTRACT: Liver transplant has become life-saving therapy for thousands of patients with end stage liver disease in the United States, but chronic rejection and the toxicities of immunosuppression remain significant obstacles to the further expansion of this modality and "transplant tolerance" remains a central goal in the field. So we and others are looking for alternative post-transplant strategies. We set out to 'engineer' repopulation after transplantation in a strain combination [dark agouti (DA) to Lewis green fluorescent protein+ (LEW GFP+)] which rejects liver grafts strongly, a model that more closely resembles the situation in humans. Our central finding is purposeful manipulation of the immune response with low dose immunosuppression and liberation of stem cells for a very short period after transplantation results in long-term transplant acceptance by two mechanisms: transforming the liver (donor) to self (host) phenotype, and auto-suppression of the specific allograft response.Chimerism. 10/2011; 2(4):120-2.
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) were reported to enhance the survival of cellular and organ transplants. However, their mode of action was not established. We here used a mouse model of corneal allotransplantation and demonstrated that peri-transplant intravenous (i.v.) infusion of human MSCs (hMSCs) decreased the early surgically induced inflammation and reduced the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the cornea and draining lymph nodes (DLNs). Subsequently, immune rejection was decreased, and allograft survival was prolonged. Quantitative assays for human GAPDH revealed that <10 hMSCs out of 1 × 10(6) injected cells were recovered in the cornea 10 hours to 28 days after i.v. infusion. Most of hMSCs were trapped in lungs where they were activated to increase expression of the gene for a multifunctional anti-inflammatory protein tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6). i.v. hMSCs with a knockdown of TSG-6 did not suppress the early inflammation and failed to prolong the allograft survival. Also, i.v. infusion of recombinant TSG-6 reproduced the effects of hMSCs. Results suggest that hMSCs improve the survival of corneal allografts without engraftment and primarily by secreting TSG-6 that acts by aborting early inflammatory responses. The same mechanism may explain previous reports that MSCs decrease rejection of other organ transplants.Molecular Therapy (2012); doi:10.1038/mt.2012.165.Molecular Therapy 08/2012; · 7.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have shown immunomodulatory and tissue repair potential including partial tolerance induction by pre-treatment of donor-specific cells in a rat heart transplantation model. Very recently, we could show that autologous MSC attenuated ischemia reperfusion injury in a highly mismatched donor-recipient rat kidney transplant model. Therefore, we investigated donor-specific MSC pre-treatment in this rat kidney transplantation model to study whether graft function could be improved, or if tolerance could be induced. Donor- and recipient-type MSC or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as a control was injected i.v. 4 days before kidney transplantation. Mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppression (20mg/kg body weight) was applied for 7 days. Kidney grafts and spleens were harvested between days 8 and 10 and analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistology. In addition, creatinine levels in the blood were measured and serum was screened for the presence of donor-specific antibodies. Surprisingly, application of both donor- and recipient-specific MSC resulted in enhanced humoral immune responses verified by intragraft B cell infiltration and complement factor C4d deposits. Moreover, signs of inflammation and rejection were generally enhanced in both MSC-treated groups relative to PBS control group. Additionally, pre-treatment with donor-specific MSC significantly enhanced the level of donor-specific antibody formation when compared with PBS- or recipient MSC-treated groups. Pre-treatment with both MSC types resulted in a higher degree of kidney cortex tissue damage and elevated creatinine levels at the time point of rejection. Thus, MSC pre-sensitization in this model impairs the allograft outcome. Our data from this pre-clinical kidney transplantation model indicate that pre-operative MSC administration may not be optimal in kidney transplantation and caution must be exerted before moving forward with clinical studies in order to avoid adverse effects.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2012; 3:202.