Transplantation of adipose-derived stroma cells (ADSCs) stimulates neovascularization after experimental ischemic injury. ADSC proangiogenic potential is likely mediated by their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and produce a wide array of angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to control ADSC differentiation. We therefore hypothesized that mitochondrial ROS production may change the ADSC proangiogenic properties.
The use of pharmacological strategies (mitochondrial inhibitors, antimycin, and rotenone, with or without antioxidants) allowed us to specifically and precisely modulate mitochondrial ROS generation in ADSCs. We showed that transient stimulation of mitochondrial ROS generation in ADSCs before their injection in ischemic hindlimb strongly improved revascularization and the number of ADSC-derived CD31-positive cells in ischemic area. Mitochondrial ROS generation increased the secretion of the proangiogenic and antiapoptotic factors, VEGF and HGF, but did not affect ADSC ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, in vitro. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS-induced ADSC preconditioning greatly protect ADSCs against oxidative stress-induced cell death.
Our study demonstrates that in vitro preconditioning by moderate mitochondrial ROS generation strongly increases in vivo ADSC proangiogenic properties and emphasizes the crucial role of mitochondrial ROS in ADSC fate.
"Further studies are needed to investigate if the chronic insulin resistance and high levels of circulating insulin may contribute to adipose tissue remodeling by ROS-mediated reduction of resident ASCs in vivo. Under normal conditions, ASCs contribute to tissue regeneration and angiogenesis through the release of angiogenic growth factors and endothelial differentiation (Carrière et al., 2009). It is possible to hypothesize that the negative effect of the chronic exposure to high insulin levels on ASC survival is partially responsible for the impaired healing of ulcers, as described in diabetic patients (Aghdam et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is now well established that reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and a basal level of oxidative stress are essential for cell survival. It is also well known that while severe oxidative stress often leads to widespread oxidative damage and cell death, a moderate level of oxidative stress, induced by a variety of stressors, can yield great beneficial effects on adaptive cellular responses to pathological challenges in aging and aging-associated disease tolerance such as ischemia tolerance. Here in this review, I term this moderate level of oxidative stress as positive oxidative stress, which usually involves imprinting molecular signatures on lipids and proteins via formation of lipid peroxidation by-products and protein oxidation adducts. As ROS/RNS are short-lived molecules, these molecular signatures can thus execute the ultimate function of ROS/RNS. Representative examples of lipid peroxidation products and protein oxidation adducts are presented to illustrate the role of positive oxidative stress in a variety of pathological settings, demonstrating that positive oxidative stress could be a valuable prophylactic and/or therapeutic approach targeting aging and aging-associated diseases.
"Mitochondria generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation and also release multiple signaling molecules, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium , , . Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of mitochondrial metabolism in regulating stem cell biology. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells which can be isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue as well as other tissues and have the capacity to differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal cell types such as adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Differentiation of stem cells into mature cell types is guided by growth factors and hormones, but recent studies suggest that metabolic shifts occur during differentiation and can modulate the differentiation process. We therefore investigated mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration and the mitochondrial membrane potential during adipogenic differentiation of human MSCs. In addition, we inhibited mitochondrial function to assess its effects on adipogenic differentiation. Our data show that mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen consumption increase markedly during adipogenic differentiation, and that reducing mitochondrial respiration by hypoxia or by inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain significantly suppresses adipogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we used a novel approach to suppress mitochondrial activity using a specific siRNA-based knockdown of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), which also resulted in an inhibition of adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, our data demonstrates that increased mitochondrial activity is a prerequisite for MSC differentiation into adipocytes. These findings suggest that metabolic modulation of adult stem cells can maintain stem cell pluripotency or direct adult stem cell differentiation.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77077. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077077 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.