Preconditioning by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species improves the proangiogenic potential of adipose-derived cells-based therapy.
ABSTRACT Transplantation of adipose-derived stroma cells (ADSCs) stimulates neovascularization after experimental ischemic injury. ADSC proangiogenic potential is likely mediated by their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and produce a wide array of angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to control ADSC differentiation. We therefore hypothesized that mitochondrial ROS production may change the ADSC proangiogenic properties.
The use of pharmacological strategies (mitochondrial inhibitors, antimycin, and rotenone, with or without antioxidants) allowed us to specifically and precisely modulate mitochondrial ROS generation in ADSCs. We showed that transient stimulation of mitochondrial ROS generation in ADSCs before their injection in ischemic hindlimb strongly improved revascularization and the number of ADSC-derived CD31-positive cells in ischemic area. Mitochondrial ROS generation increased the secretion of the proangiogenic and antiapoptotic factors, VEGF and HGF, but did not affect ADSC ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, in vitro. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS-induced ADSC preconditioning greatly protect ADSCs against oxidative stress-induced cell death.
Our study demonstrates that in vitro preconditioning by moderate mitochondrial ROS generation strongly increases in vivo ADSC proangiogenic properties and emphasizes the crucial role of mitochondrial ROS in ADSC fate.
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ABSTRACT: The inadequacy of existing therapeutic tools together with the paucity of organ donors have always led medical researchers to innovate the current treatment methods or to discover new ways to cure disease. Emergence of cell-based therapies has provided a new framework through which it has given the human world a new hope. Though relatively a new concept, the pace of advancement clearly reveals the significant role that stem cells will ultimately play in the near future. However, there are numerous uncertainties that are prevailing against the present setting of clinical trials related to stem cells: like the best route of cell administration, appropriate dosage, duration and several other applications. A better knowledge of these factors can substantially improve the effectiveness of disease cure or organ repair using this latest therapeutic tool. From a certain perspective, it could be argued that by considering certain proven clinical concepts and experience from synthetic drug system, we could improve the overall efficacy of cell-based therapies. In the past, studies on synthetic drug therapies and their clinical trials have shown that all the aforementioned factors have critical ascendancy over its therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, based on the knowledge gained from synthetic drug delivery systems, we hypothesize that by employing many of the clinical approaches from synthetic drug therapies to this new regenerative therapeutic tool, the efficacy of stem cell-based therapies can also be improved.Journal of Translational Medicine 09/2014; 12(1):243. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: The self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells are controlled by both intrinsic factors and the surrounding microenvironment, which is known as the stem cell niche. Although the niches of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are composed of diverse factors within the adipose tissue, the mechanisms by which niches are maintained, regulated and harmonized to support the ASCs are just beginning to be discovered. Areas covered: This review introduces the recent advances in the anatomic nature of the dynamic in vivo niches of ASCs. Additionally, new findings concerning the signaling pathways involved in the self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation and paracrine mechanisms will be described. Finally, we suggest optimized methods for expanding ASCs in vitro by mimicking the niche factors to enhance the regenerative potential of ASCs. Expert opinion: Fibroblast growth factor 2 is a self-renewal factor that can expand the lifespan of ASCs in long-term culture and platelet-derived growth factor-B/D has most potent mitogenic effects on short-term ASC expansion. Reactive oxygen species donors and stimulators of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B and MAPK pathways can be used to increase the production yield of ASCs. Additionally, hypoxia can increase the proliferation of ASCs and priming under hypoxic conditions enhances the regenerative potential of ASCs.Expert opinion on biological therapy 04/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Homeostasis of adipose tissue requires highly coordinated response between circulating factors and cell population. Human adult adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) display multiple differentiation properties and are sensitive to insulin stimulation. Insulin resistance and high level of circulating insulin characterize patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. At physiological concentration, insulin promoted proliferation and survival of ASCs in vitro, whereas high insulin level induced their dose-dependent proliferative arrest and apoptosis. Insulin-induced apoptotic commitment depended on the down-regulation of Erk-1, insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1)-mediated signaling. Specific inhibition of Erk-1/2, IGF-1R, and FGFR activity promoted ASC apoptosis but did not increase insulin effects, whereas EGFR and ErbB2 inhibition potentiated insulin-induced apoptosis. FGFRs and EGFR inhibition reduced ASC adipogenic differentiation, whereas Erk-1/2 and IGF-1R inhibition was ineffective. Insulin-induced apoptosis associated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and inhibition of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) activity prevented ASC apoptosis. Moreover, specific inhibition of Erk-1/2, IGF-1R, and FGFR-1 activity promoted ROS generation and this effect was not cumulative with that of insulin alone. Our data indicate that insulin concentration is a critical regulatory switch between proliferation and survival of ASCs. High insulin level-induced apoptotic machinery involves Nox4-generated oxidative stress and the down-regulation of a complex receptor signaling, partially distinct from that influencing adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 05/2014; · 3.87 Impact Factor