Myocardial microvascular function during acute coronary artery stenosis: effect of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia.
ABSTRACT Coronary collateral arteries (CCA) reduce cardiovascular events. We tested the hypothesis that new microvessels that proliferate in early atherosclerosis may be associated with myocardial protection during acute subtotal coronary artery obstruction (CAO).
Acute left anterior descending CAO was induced by a balloon catheter in pigs after 12 weeks of high-cholesterol (HC) diet, renovascular hypertension (HTN), or normal control. Cardiac structure, myocardial perfusion, and functional response to iv adenosine and CAO were studied in vivo using electron beam computed tomography (CT). The intra-myocardial microvessels were subsequently evaluated ex vivo using micro-CT, and myocardial expression of growth factors using immunoblotting. Basal myocardial perfusion and microvascular permeability were similar among the groups, whereas their responses to adenosine were attenuated in HC and HTN. A significant decline in myocardial perfusion in normal pigs during acute CAO was attenuated in HC and abolished in HTN. CAO also elicited an increase in normal anterior wall microvascular permeability (+202 +/- 59%, P < 0.05), which was attenuated in HC and HTN (+55 +/- 9 and +31 +/- 8%, respectively, P < 0.05 vs. normal). Microvascular (<200 microm) spatial density was significantly elevated in HC and HTN, accompanied by increased myocardial growth factor expression.
This study demonstrates that early exposure to the cardiovascular risk factors HC and HTN protects the heart from decreases in myocardial perfusion during acute subtotal CAO. This protective effect is associated with and potentially mediated by pre-emptive development of intra-myocardial microvessels that might serve as recruitable CCA.
Article: Comparison of epidurally administered sufentanil, morphine, and sufentanil-morphine combination for postoperative analgesia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Postoperative analgesia provided by epidurally administered sufentanil and/or morphine was evaluated in 45 patients recovering from major gynecologic surgery. At the first complaint of pain in the Postanesthesia Care Unit, patients received a single epidural bolus of 30 micrograms sufentanil (group A), 5 mg morphine (group B), or 30 micrograms sufentanil plus 3 mg morphine (group C) in a randomized blinded fashion. Analgesic efficacy was assessed throughout the 24-h study period with 10-cm visual analog scales. The need for additional postoperative analgesia (patient-controlled analgesia, 1 mg of morphine every 6 min as necessary) and the incidence of adverse effects were also assessed. Patients receiving sufentanil (groups A and C) had significantly faster onset of analgesia than did patients given morphine alone (group B, P less than 0.05). Group B subjects experienced the longest duration of analgesia (B vs A and C, P less than 0.05) and required significantly less patient-controlled analgesia (morphine) than patients in group A (P less than 0.05). No patient developed clinically significant respiratory depression or excessive sedation, and there were no intergroup differences in incidence of pruritus or nausea (P value not significant). The data indicate that a mixture of sufentanil and morphine provides either a more rapid onset of epidural analgesia or reduced patient-controlled analgesia narcotic requirement than respective doses of each agent administered alone.Anesthesia & Analgesia 05/1991; 72(4):522-7. · 3.29 Impact Factor
Article: A quantitative study of the anatomy and distribution of coronary arteries in swine in comparison with other animals and man.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The coronary circulation of swine was studied to establish adequate baseline information for using swine in cardiovascular research. Of 65 hearts from domestic and miniature pigs, 45 were injected with a methacrylate plastic and prepared as coronary artery casts whose branches were described and measured, and 20 were injected with different coloured dyes in the right, left anterior descending, and circumflex coronary arteries so that horizontal sections of the heart showed the distribution of each artery and the source of blood supply to particular areas or structures of the heart. Like man, the swine had a left coronary artery that was larger in diameter and longer than the right coronary artery. The right coronary artery was almost always dominant (78%), supplying the posterior septum and atrioventricular node via the posterior descending coronary artery. Eight (17%) of the hearts possessed a balanced blood supply. Two (5%) hearts had a left dominant supply. The intracoronary artery dye injections showed that 72.4% of the right ventricular mass was supplied by the right coronary artery and 27.6% by the left anterior descending coronary artery. In the left ventricle 49% of the mass was supplied by the left anterior descending coronary artery, 25.5% by the right coronary artery, and 25.5% by the circumflex coronary artery. The left anterior descending coronary artery supplied 58% of the interventricular septal mass, while the posterior descending coronary artery supplied 42%. The distribution of the left anterior descending coronary artery branches to the ventricular wall varied inversely in number and size of its diagonal branches (2-9) with the obtuse marginal branches of the circumflex coronary artery which were occasionally more numerous or extended to the apex. The blood supply to the sinoatrial node was always by a branch of the right coronary artery. This analysis shows that not only the coronary anatomy but also the distribution of blood supply to particular areas or structures of the swine heart are very similar to that of humans.Cardiovascular Research 01/1987; 20(12):907-17. · 6.06 Impact Factor