Environmental assessment of Ammässuo Landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modelling (EASEWASTE).
ABSTRACT The Old Ammässuo Landfill (Espoo, Finland) covers an area of 52 hectares and contains about 10 million tonnes of waste that was landfilled between 1987 and 2007. The majority of this waste was mixed, of which about 57% originated from households. This paper aims at describing the management of the Old Ammässuo Landfill throughout its operational lifetime (1987-2007), and at developing an environmental evaluation based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE-model. The assessment criteria evaluate specific categories of impact, including standard impact categories, toxicity-related impact categories and an impact categorized as spoiled groundwater resources (SGR). With respect to standard and toxicity-related impact categories, the LCA results show that substantial impact potentials are estimated for global warming (GW), ozone depletion (OD), human toxicity via soil (HTs) and ecotoxicity in water chronic (ETwc). The largest impact potential was found for SGR and amounted to 57.6 person equivalent (PE) per tonne of landfilled waste. However, the SGR impact may not be viewed as a significant issue in Finland as the drinking water is mostly supplied from surface water bodies. Overall, the results demonstrate that gas management has great importance to the environmental performance of the Old Ammässuo Landfill. However, several chemicals related to gas composition (especially trace compounds) and specific emissions from on-site operations were not available or were not measured and were therefore taken from the literature. Measurement campaigns and field investigations should be undertaken in order to obtain a more robust and comprehensive dataset that can be used in the LCA-modelling, before major improvements regarding landfill management are finalized.
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ABSTRACT: An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.Waste Management 03/2014; · 3.16 Impact Factor
- Journal of Cleaner Production 07/2014; 75:64–74. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Landfill gas (LFG) is usually suited for energy utilization. It can be used as substitute for fossil fuels to avoid greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The amount of avoided GHG emissions through LFG utilization depends on different factors such as the amount LFG, proportion of methane in LFG, utilization techniques and the type of replaced fossil fuel. In this study, two alternatives of LFG utilization were considered to estimate the avoided GHG emissions by formulating two different scenarios. The result shows that LFG utilization in district heat generation gives the higher reduction in GHG emission than LFG utilization in electricity production. Based on assumption that 1 000 000 m 3 of LFG can be utilized, the estimated reduction of GHG emission is 1818 t CO2-eq when LFG utilization is used as a substitute for district heat generation by coal. On the other hand, the LFG utilization gives 1436 t CO2-eq GHG emission reduction when electricity production by coal is replaced by LFG. The result suggests that the estimated avoided GHG emissions depends strongly on the data used in the estimation, and that such data have to be carefully selected.