Frequency of hypoglycemia and its significance in chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT This study set out to determine the incidence of hypoglycemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), with and without diabetes, and the association of hypoglycemia with mortality.
This was a retrospective cohort analysis of 243,222 patients who had 2,040,206 glucose measurements and were cared for at the Veterans Health Administration. CKD was defined as an estimated GFR of <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Hypoglycemia was set at <70 mg/dl. Mortality was measured 1 day after glucose measurement.
The incidence of hypoglycemia was higher in patients with CKD versus without CKD. Among patients with diabetes, the rate was 10.72 versus 5.33 per 100 patient-months and among patients without diabetes was 3.46 versus 2.23 per 100 patient-months, for CKD versus no CKD, respectively. The odds of 1-d mortality were increased at all levels of hypoglycemia but attenuated in CKD versus no CKD. Adjusted odds ratios for 1-d mortality that were associated with glucose values of <50, 50 to 59, and 60 to 69 mg/dl, respectively, versus glucose of >or=70 mg/dl were 6.09, 4.10, and 1.85 for inpatient records from patients with CKD; 9.95, 3.79, and 2.54 for inpatients records from patients without CKD; 6.84, 3.28, and 3.98 for outpatient records from patients with CKD; and 13.28, 7.36, and 4.34 for outpatient records from patients without CKD.
CKD is a risk for hypoglycemia, with or without diabetes. The excessive mortality associated with hypoglycemia makes this complication a significant threat to patient safety in CKD.
Article: A repeated measures approach for simultaneous modeling of multiple neurobehavioral outcomes in newborns exposed to cocaine in utero.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple binary outcomes are encountered frequently in epidemiologic research. This work was motivated by the Maternal Lifestyle Study, 1993-1995, where newborns exposed prenatally to cocaine and a comparison cohort were examined for the presence of central and autonomic nervous system (CNS/ANS) signs. Thus, each infant contributed to multiple, possibly interrelated, binary outcomes that may collectively constitute one syndrome (even though specific outcomes that are affected by cocaine are of scientific interest). Because it is neither scientifically appropriate nor statistically efficient to fit separate models for each outcome, here we adopt a multivariate repeated measures approach to simultaneously model all the CNS/ANS outcomes as a function of cocaine exposure and other covariates. This formulation has a number of advantages. First, it implicitly recognizes that all the CNS/ANS outcomes may together constitute one syndrome. Second, simultaneous modeling boosts statistical efficiency by allowing for correlations among the outcomes, and it avoids multiple comparisons. Third, it allows for outcome-specific exposure effects, so that the specific signs that are affected by cocaine exposure can be identified.American Journal of Epidemiology 06/2004; 159(9):891-9. · 5.22 Impact Factor