New MRI, (18)F-DOPA and (11)C-(+)-alpha-dihydrotetrabenazine templates for Macaca fascicularis neuroimaging: Advantages to improve PET quantification
ABSTRACT Normalization of neuroimaging studies to a stereotaxic space allows the utilization of standard volumes of interest (VOIs) and voxel-based analysis (SPM). Such spatial normalization of PET and MRI studies requires a high quality template image. The aim of this study was to create new MRI and PET templates of (18)F-DOPA and (11)C-(+)-alpha-dihydrotetrabenazine ((11)C-DTBZ) of the Macaca fascicularis brain, an important animal model of Parkinson's disease. MRI template was constructed as a smoothed average of the scans of 15 healthy animals, previously transformed into the space of one representative MRI. In order to create the PET templates, (18)F-DOPA and (11)C-DTBZ PET of the same subjects were acquired in a dedicated small animal PET scanner and transformed to the created MRI template space. To validate these templates for PET quantification, parametric values obtained with a standard VOI-map applied after spatial normalization to each template were statistically compared to results computed using individual VOIs drawn for each animal. The high correlation between both procedures validated the utilization of all the templates, improving the reproducibility of PET analysis. To prove the utility of the templates for voxel-based quantification, dopamine striatal depletion in a representative monkey treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was assessed by SPM analysis of (11)C-DTBZ PET. A symmetric reduction in striatal (11)C-DTBZ uptake was detected in accordance with the induced lesion. In conclusion, templates of M. fascicularis brain have been constructed and validated for reproducible and automated PET quantification. All templates are electronically available via the internet.
SourceAvailable from: Bénédicte Ballanger[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: MRI templates and digital atlases are needed for automated and reproducible quantitative analysis of non-human primate PET studies. Segmenting brain images via multiple atlases outperforms single-atlas labelling in humans. We present a set of atlases manually delineated on brain MRI scans of the monkey Macaca fascicularis. We use this multi-atlas dataset to evaluate two automated methods in terms of accuracy, robustness and reliability in segmenting brain structures on MRI and extracting regional PET measures. METHODS: Twelve individual Macaca fascicularis high-resolution 3DT1 MR images were acquired. Four individual atlases were created by manually drawing 42 anatomical structures, including cortical and sub-cortical structures, white matter regions, and ventricles. To create the MRI template, we first chose one MRI to define a reference space, and then performed a two-step iterative procedure: affine registration of individual MRIs to the reference MRI, followed by averaging of the twelve resampled MRIs. Automated segmentation in native space was obtained in two ways: 1) Maximum probability atlases were created by decision fusion of two to four individual atlases in the reference space, and transformation back into the individual native space (MAXPROB)(.) 2) One to four individual atlases were registered directly to the individual native space, and combined by decision fusion (PROPAG). Accuracy was evaluated by computing the Dice similarity index and the volume difference. The robustness and reproducibility of PET regional measurements obtained via automated segmentation was evaluated on four co-registered MRI/PET datasets, which included test-retest data.Results Dice indices were always over 0.7 and reached maximal values of 0.9 for PROPAG with all four individual atlases. There was no significant mean volume bias. The standard deviation of the bias decreased significantly when increasing the number of individual atlases. MAXPROB performed better when increasing the number of atlases used. When all four atlases were used for the MAXPROB creation, the accuracy of morphometric segmentation approached that of the PROPAG method. PET measures extracted either via automatic methods or via the manually defined regions were strongly correlated, with no significant regional differences between methods. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest data were over 0.87. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to single atlas extractions, multi-atlas methods improve the accuracy of region definition. They also perform comparably to manually defined regions for PET quantification. Multiple atlases of Macaca fascicularis brains are now available and allow reproducible and simplified analyses.NeuroImage 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.03.029 · 6.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Much controversy exists concerning the effect of levodopa on striatal dopaminergic markers in Parkinson´s disease (PD) and its influence on functional neuroimaging. To deal with this issue we studied the impact of neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and chronic levodopa administration on striatal (18)F-DOPA uptake (Ki) in an animal model of PD. The levels of several striatal dopaminergic markers and the number of surviving dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) were also assessed. Eleven Macaca fascicularis were included in the study. Eight animals received weekly intravenous injections of MPTP for 7weeks and 3 intact animals served as controls. MPTP-monkeys were divided in two groups. Group I was treated with placebo while Group II received levodopa. Both treatments were maintained for 11months and then followed by a washout period of 6months. (18)F-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed at baseline, after MPTP intoxication, following 11months of treatment, and after a washout period of 1, 3 and 6months. Monkeys were sacrificed 6months after concluding either placebo or levodopa treatment and immediately after the last (18)F-DOPA PET study. Striatal dopamine transporter (DAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) content were assessed. In Group II (18)F-DOPA PET studies performed at 3 and 6months after interrupting levodopa showed a significantly increased Ki in anterior putamen as compared to Group I. Levodopa and placebo treated animals exhibited a similar number of surviving dopaminergic cells in the SN. Striatal DAT content was equally reduced in both groups of animals. Animals in Group I exhibited a significant decrease in TH protein content in all the striatal regions assessed. However, in Group II, TH levels were significantly reduced only in the anterior and posterior putamen. Surprisingly, in the levodopa-treated animals the TH levels in the posterior putamen were significantly lower than in the placebo group. AADC levels in MPTP groups were similar to those of control animals in all striatal areas analyzed. This study shows that chronic levodopa administration to monkeys with partial nigrostriatal degeneration followed by a washout period induces modifications in the functional activity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway.Neurobiology of Disease 09/2013; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2013.09.014 · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Unlike many other imaging techniques, positron emission tomography, PET, necessitates gathering a broad array of competences: biologists/physicians have to interact with physicists, chemists and mathematicians to acquire and analyze PET data. The ensemble of a PET imaging experiment, from the creation of the isotope to the interpretation of the imaging data, requires a unique combination of high-tech equipment to be installed preferentially on the same site, such as: a cyclotron, a radiochemistry laboratory, a PET camera, an animal facility and a data treatment and storage facility. In the material and methods chapter for each process, we discuss the requirements of the equipment and the usual procedures, from the creation of the isotope to the modelling of the PET data. Depending on the animal model (mouse, rat, non-human primate, …) or the isotope (11C, 18F, …) used, the challenges and requisites for setting up a PET imaging experiment will be different. The notes section discusses some important considerations on animal handling in PET imaging and the basic experimental set-up to evaluate the characteristics of a radiotracer. This chapter is concluded with some practical examples related to Parkinson disease and neuroinflammation.Neuromethods, Edited by Emma L. Lane, Stephen B. Dunnett, 01/2012: chapter Animal Models of Movement Disorders: pages 151-190; Humana Press., ISBN: 978-1-61779-298-4