Article

Otidea subterranea sp. nov.: Otidea goes below ground.

Farlow Herbarium of Cryptogamic Botany, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Mycological Research (Impact Factor: 2.81). 06/2009; 113(Pt 8):858-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.mycres.2009.04.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Evidence suggests that truffle-like sporocarp forms have evolved many times in the Pezizales, but primarily from epigeous ancestors within ectomycorrhizal clades. There are several ectomycorrhizal clades, however, that contain no known hypogeous species. We collected specimens of an unusual unidentified truffle from mixed oak woodlands in Iowa. Although clearly a member of the Pezizales (Ascomycota), this hypogeous species did not belong to any of the described truffle genera. Based on a combination of ecological, phylogenetic, and morphological evidence we determined that this new truffle is a hypogeous member of the genus Otidea (Pyronemataceae), a lineage with no described truffle species. We describe it here as a new species, Otidea subterranea.

1 Bookmark
 · 
152 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pyronemataceae is the largest and most heterogeneous family of Pezizomycetes. It is morphologically and ecologically highly divers, comprising saprobic, ectomycorrhizal, bryosymbiotic and parasitic species, occurring in a broad range of habitats (on soil, burnt ground, debris, wood, dung and inside living bryophytes, plants and lichens). To assess the monophyly of Pyronemataceae and provide a phylogenetic hypothesis of the group, we compiled a four-gene dataset including one nuclear ribosomal and three protein-coding genes for 132 distinct Pezizomycetes species (4437 nucleotides with all markers available for 80% of the total 142 included taxa). This is the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Pyronemataceae, and Pezizomycetes, to date. Three hundred ninety-four new sequences were generated during this project, with the following numbers for each gene: RPB1 (124), RPB2 (99), EF-1α (120) and LSU rDNA (51). The dataset includes 93 unique species from 40 genera of Pyronemataceae, and 34 species from 25 genera representing an additional 12 families of the class. Parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggest that Pyronemataceae is paraphyletic due to the nesting of both Ascodesmidaceae and Glaziellaceae within the family. Four lineages with taxa currently classified in the family, the Boubovia, Geopyxis, Pseudombrophila and Pulvinula lineages, form a monophyletic group with Ascodemidaceae and Glaziellaceae. We advocate the exclusion of these four lineages in order to recognize a monophyletic Pyronemataceae. The genus Coprotus (Thelebolales, Leotiomycetes) is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes, forming a strongly supported monophyletic group with Boubovia. Ten strongly supported lineages are identified within Pyronemataceae s. str. Of these, the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages are identified as successive sister lineages to the rest of Pyronemataceae s. str. The highly reduced (gymnohymenial) Monascella is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes and is for the first time suggested to be closely related to the cleistothecial Warcupia, as a sister group to the primarily apothecial Otidea. None of the lineages of pyronemataceous taxa identified here correspond to previous families or subfamily classifications. Ancestral character state reconstructions (ASR) using a Bayesian approach support that the ancestors of Pezizomycetes and Pyronemataceae were soil inhabiting and saprobic. Ectomycorrhizae have arisen within both lineages A, B and C of Pezizomycetes and are suggested to have evolved independently seven to eight times within Pyronemataceae s.l., whereas an obligate bryosymbiotic lifestyle has arisen only twice. No reversals to a free-living, saprobic lifestyle have happened from symbiotic or parasitic Pyronemataceae. Specializations to various substrates (e.g. burnt ground and dung) are suggested to have occurred several times in mainly saprobic lineages. Although carotenoids in the apothecia are shown to have arisen at least four times in Pezizomycetes, the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str., excluding the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages, most likely produced carotenoids, which were then subsequently lost in some clades (- and possibly gained again). Excipular hairs were found with a high probability to be absent from apothecia in the deepest nodes of Pezizomycetes and in the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str. True hairs are restricted to the core group of Pyronemataceae s. str., but are also found in Lasiobolus (Ascodesmidaceae), the Pseudombrophila lineage and the clade of Chorioactidaceae, Sarcoscyphaceae and Sarcosomataceae. The number of gains and losses of true hairs within Pyronemataceae s.str., however, remains uncertain. The ASR of ascospore guttulation under binary coding (present or absent) indicates that this character is fast evolving and prone to shifts.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 02/2013; · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fevansia aurantiaca is an orange-colored truffle that has been collected infrequently in the Pacific Northwest of the USA. This sequestrate, hypogeous fungus was originally thought to be related to the genera Rhizopogon or Alpova in the Boletales, but the large, inflated cells in the trama and the very pale spore mass easily segregated it from these genera. To date, no molecular phylogenetic studies have determined its closest relatives. F. aurantiaca was originally discovered in leaf litter beneath Pinaceae, leading Trappe and Castellano (Mycotaxon 75:153-179, 2000) to suggest that it is an ectomycorrhizal symbiont of various members of the Pinaceae. However, without direct ecological or phylogenetic data, it is impossible to confirm the trophic mode of this truffle species. In this study, we combined phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and 28S ribosomal DNA with data on microscopic morphology to determine that F. aurantiaca is a member of the Albatrellus ectomycorrhizal lineage (Albatrellaceae, Russulales).
    Mycorrhiza 05/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This analysis aims to provide an update in the recent truffle research through the chosen articles published in scientific journals. The journals were chosen based upon journal profiles and scientific prestige. Authors have considered publications from: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Biochemical Journal, BMC Bioinformatics, BMC Genomics, Current Genetics, Environmental Microbiology, Eukaryotic Cell, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Food Chemistry, Fungal Diversity, Fungal Genetics and Biology, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Mycological Research (Fungal Biology), Mycorrhiza and New Phytologist. The number of analysed 124 articles shows the results over the twenty years period (1993-2012). Critical analysis has been used to determine thematic scope, whilst bibliometric study identifies development directions.
    Scientific research and essays 10/2013; 8(38):1837-1847. · 0.32 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
39 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014