A novel calpastatin-based inhibitor improves postischemic neurological recovery.
ABSTRACT Calpastatin, a naturally occurring protein, is the only inhibitor that is specific for calpain. A novel blood-brain barrier (BBB)-permeant calpastatin-based calpain inhibitor, named B27-HYD, was developed and used to assess calpain's contribution to neurological dysfunction after stroke in rats. Postischemic administration of B27-HYD reduced infarct volume and neurological deficits by 35% and 44%, respectively, compared to untreated animals. We also show that the pharmacologic intervention has engaged the intended biologic target. Our data further demonstrates the potential utility of SBDP145, a signature biomarker of acute brain injury, in evaluating possible mechanisms of calpain in the pathogenesis of stroke and as an adjunct in guiding therapeutic decision making.
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ABSTRACT: After an acute ischemia/reperfusion of the rat retina, the activation of cytotoxic proteases, including calpain, results in necrosis and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells resulting in their degeneration. Using a systemically administered calpain inhibitor that crosses the blood-retinal barrier would provide for novel systemic intervention that protects the retina from acute injury and loss of function. Herein, we study a novel calpain peptide inhibitor, cysteic-leucyl-argininal (CYLA), in an in-vivo rat model of retinal ischemia to determine functional protection using electroretinography. The CYLA prodrug was administered intraperitoneally before and/or after ischemia-reperfusion at concentrations of 20-40 mg/kg. We found that administering 20 mg/kg of CYLA only after ischemia provides significant preservation of retinal function.Neuroreport 09/2011; 22(13):633-6. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gene coding for glutathione S-transferase (GST) has been isolated from the Mytilus edulis hepatopancreas. Open reading frame analysis indicated that the M. edulis GST (meGST) gene encodes a protein of 206 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 23.68 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high sequence similarity with the sequence of the pi class GST. The meGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant meGST was purified by affinity chromatography and characterized. The recombinant meGST exhibited high activity towards the substrates ethacrynic acid (ECA) and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Kinetic analysis with respect to CDNB as substrate gave a K(m) of 0.68 mM and a V(max) of 0.10 mmol/min per mg protein. The recombinant meGST had a maximum activity at approximately pH 8.5, and its optimum temperature was 39 degrees C. The predicted three-dimensional structure of the meGST revealed the N-terminal domain possesses a thioredoxin fold and the six helices of the C-terminal domain make a alpha-helical bundle. These features indicate that the meGST belongs to pi class GST.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 11/2004; 139(2):175-82. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The calpain family of calcium-dependent proteases has been implicated in a variety of diseases and neurodegenerative pathologies. Prolonged activation of calpains results in proteolysis of numerous cellular substrates including cytoskeletal components and membrane receptors, contributing to cell demise despite coincident expression of calpastatin, the specific inhibitor of calpains. Pharmacological and gene knockout strategies have targeted calpains to determine their contribution to neurodegenerative pathology; however, limitations associated with treatment paradigms, drug specificity, and genetic disruptions have produced inconsistent results and complicated interpretation. Specific, targeted calpain inhibition achieved by enhancing endogenous calpastatin levels offers unique advantages in studying pathological calpain activation. We have characterized a novel calpastatin overexpressing transgenic mouse model, demonstrating a substantial increase in calpastatin expression within nervous system and peripheral tissues and associated reduction in protease activity. Experimental activation of calpains via traumatic brain injury resulted in cleavage of α-spectrin, collapsin response mediator protein-2, and voltage-gated sodium channel, critical proteins for the maintenance of neuronal structure and function. Calpastatin overexpression significantly attenuated calpain-mediated proteolysis of these selected substrates acutely following severe controlled cortical impact injury, but with no effect on acute hippocampal neurodegeneration. Augmenting calpastatin levels may be an effective method for calpain inhibition in TBI and neurodegenerative disorders. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry, J. Neurochem. (2013) 10.1111/jnc.12144.Journal of Neurochemistry 01/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor