A novel calpastatin-based inhibitor improves postischemic neurological recovery.
ABSTRACT Calpastatin, a naturally occurring protein, is the only inhibitor that is specific for calpain. A novel blood-brain barrier (BBB)-permeant calpastatin-based calpain inhibitor, named B27-HYD, was developed and used to assess calpain's contribution to neurological dysfunction after stroke in rats. Postischemic administration of B27-HYD reduced infarct volume and neurological deficits by 35% and 44%, respectively, compared to untreated animals. We also show that the pharmacologic intervention has engaged the intended biologic target. Our data further demonstrates the potential utility of SBDP145, a signature biomarker of acute brain injury, in evaluating possible mechanisms of calpain in the pathogenesis of stroke and as an adjunct in guiding therapeutic decision making.
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ABSTRACT: After an acute ischemia/reperfusion of the rat retina, the activation of cytotoxic proteases, including calpain, results in necrosis and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells resulting in their degeneration. Using a systemically administered calpain inhibitor that crosses the blood-retinal barrier would provide for novel systemic intervention that protects the retina from acute injury and loss of function. Herein, we study a novel calpain peptide inhibitor, cysteic-leucyl-argininal (CYLA), in an in-vivo rat model of retinal ischemia to determine functional protection using electroretinography. The CYLA prodrug was administered intraperitoneally before and/or after ischemia-reperfusion at concentrations of 20-40 mg/kg. We found that administering 20 mg/kg of CYLA only after ischemia provides significant preservation of retinal function.Neuroreport 09/2011; 22(13):633-6. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gene coding for glutathione S-transferase (GST) has been isolated from the Mytilus edulis hepatopancreas. Open reading frame analysis indicated that the M. edulis GST (meGST) gene encodes a protein of 206 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 23.68 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high sequence similarity with the sequence of the pi class GST. The meGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant meGST was purified by affinity chromatography and characterized. The recombinant meGST exhibited high activity towards the substrates ethacrynic acid (ECA) and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Kinetic analysis with respect to CDNB as substrate gave a K(m) of 0.68 mM and a V(max) of 0.10 mmol/min per mg protein. The recombinant meGST had a maximum activity at approximately pH 8.5, and its optimum temperature was 39 degrees C. The predicted three-dimensional structure of the meGST revealed the N-terminal domain possesses a thioredoxin fold and the six helices of the C-terminal domain make a alpha-helical bundle. These features indicate that the meGST belongs to pi class GST.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 11/2004; 139(2):175-82. · 2.07 Impact Factor
- Research in Immunology 01/1996; 147(8-9):499-505.