Excess electron is trapped in a large single molecular cage C60F60.
ABSTRACT A new kind of solvated electron systems, sphere-shaped e(-)@C60F60 (I(h)) and capsule-shaped e(-)@C60F60 (D6h), in contrast to the endohedral complex M@C60, is represented at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) + dBF (diffusive basis functions) density functional theory. It is proven, by examining the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) and the spin density map of e(-)@C60F60, that the excess electron is indeed encapsulated inside the C60F60 cage. The shape of the electron cloud in SOMO matches with the shape of C60F60 cage. These cage-like single molecular solvated electrons have considerably large vertical electron detachment energies VDE of 4.95 (I(h)) and 4.67 eV (D6h) at B3LYP/6-31+G(3df) + dBF level compared to the VDE of 3.2 eV for an electron in bulk water (Coe et al., Int Rev Phys Chem 2001, 20, 33) and that of 3.66 eV for e(-)@C20F20 (Irikura, J Phys Chem A 2008, 112, 983), which shows their higher stability. The VDE of the sphere-shaped e(-)@C60F60 (I(h)) is greater than that of the capsule-shaped e(-)@C60F60 (D6h), indicating that the excess electron prefers to reside in the cage with the higher symmetry to form the more stable solvated electron. It is also noticed that the cage size [7.994 (I(h)), 5.714 and 9.978 A (D6h) in diameter] is much larger than that (2.826 A) of (H2O)20- dodecahedral cluster (Khan, Chem Phys Lett 2005, 401, 85).
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ABSTRACT: The excess electron in liquid ammonia ("ammoniated electron") is commonly viewed as a cavity electron in which the s-type wave function fills the interstitial void between 6 and 9 ammonia molecules. Here we examine an alternative model in which the ammoniated electron is regarded as a solvent stabilized multimer radical anion in which most of the excess electron density resides in the frontier orbitals of N atoms in the ammonia molecules forming the solvation cavity. The cavity is formed due to the repulsion between negatively charged solvent molecules. Using density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that such core anions would semiquantitatively account for the observed pattern of Knight shifts for 1H and 14N nuclei observed by NMR spectroscopy and the downshifted stretching and bending modes observed by infrared spectroscopy. We speculate that the excess electrons in other aprotic solvents might be, in this respect, analogous to the ammoniated electron, with substantial transfer of the spin density into the frontier N and C orbitals of methyl, amino, and amide groups.The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 04/2006; 110(11):3967-76. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: B3LYP/6-31G(d) hybrid HF/DFT calculations were carried out to determine the structural and electronic properties of the endohedral complex of C60 with tetrahedrane C4H4. It was demonstrated that C4H4 was seated in the center of the C60 cage and existed in a molecular form inside the fullerene. The formation of this complex was endothermic with inclusion energy of 141.05 kcal/mol. C4H4 endohedral doping slightly perturbed the molecular orbitals of C60. The calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps, the electron affinity(EA) and the ionizational potential (IP) indicated that C4H4@C60 seemed to be more kinetically reactive than C60. The IR active modes and harmonic vibrational frequencies of C4H4@C60 were also discussed.Journal of molecular graphics & modelling 12/2008; 27(4):558-62. · 2.17 Impact Factor
Article: Toward inorganic electrides.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Electrides are materials in which alkali metals (Li through Cs) ionize to form bound alkali cations and "excess" electrons. The electrons reside in large cavities or channels or both in the host lattice. We report here the first synthesis of thermally stable inorganic electrides with cation-to-electron ratios of 1:1 as in organic electrides. Although alkali metal adducts to alumino-silicate zeolites are well known, the cation-to-electron ratio is generally 3:1 or greater because these zeolites contain alkali cations prior to incorporation of the alkali metal. In this work, two pure silica zeolites, ITQ-4and ITQ-7, with pore diameters of approximately 7 A, absorb up to 40 wt % cesium from the vapor phase (even at room temperature). The other alkali metals (except Li) can also be introduced at elevated temperatures. The optical and magnetic properties of the cesium-loaded samples suggest ionization to form Cs+ and e- with substantial electron-spin pairing. The metal-loaded samples are stable to at least 100 degrees C and are able to reduce small aromatic molecules such as benzene and naphthalene to the radical anions within the pores of the zeolite.Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2002; 124(7):1170-1. · 10.68 Impact Factor