Nutritional Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.56). 06/2009; 76(3):257-68. DOI: 10.1002/msj.20118
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Weight loss is a key goal in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are conflicting weight-loss strategies, including low-carbohydrate diets, low-glycemic-index diets, low-fat vegan diets, conventional low-fat diets, and high protein and high-monounsaturated fat diets. There is no evidence to suggest that 1 nutrional strategy is clearly the best. The most successful strategy is one that the patient can adopt and follow in the long term. Mt Sinai J Med 76:257-268, 2009. (C) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diet plays an integral role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Unfortunately, many patients with T2DM do not have access to a registered dietitian or certified diabetes educator, and rates of physician counseling about diet remain low. This article provides an overview of the current recommendations for the nutritional management of T2DM, which are endorsed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Medical nutrition therapy, which provides a flexible and individualized approach to diet, emphasizes the total number (rather than the type) of carbohydrate consumed. Because fat intake also affects glycemia and cardiovascular risk, a reduction in daily mono- and polyunsaturated fat intake is recommended for most patients with T2DM. Weight loss plays an important adjunct role in treating patients with T2DM, because the majority of individuals with T2DM are overweight or obese. Patient lifestyle modification, which encompasses diet, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, can be used to facilitate weight loss in conjunction with several different dietary approaches. These include low-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-glycemic index, and Mediterranean diets. Studies have demonstrated that modest weight loss (5%-10% of body weight) is associated with significant improvements in patient measures of glycemic control, lipids, blood pressure, and other cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, a modest weight loss of as little as 4.5 kg can result in reducing the glycated hemoglobin level by approximately 0.5%. Pharmacologic agents, when combined with these approaches, may further augment weight loss. Familiarity with these principles can help physicians provide dietary counseling to their patients with T2DM and obesity.
    Postgraduate Medicine 01/2014; 126(1):139-52. DOI:10.3810/pgm.2014.01.2734 · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the antioxidant activity and anti-diabetic effect of mulberry (Morus alba L. wielkolistna zolwinska) leaf extracts in diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet. After initial 4-week high-fat diet, streptozotocin was injected in Wistar rats to induce non-obese type 2 diabetes. After confirmation of diabetes, animals were treated with mulberry dried leaves, leaf-derived ethanol or acetone extracts added to high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Mulberry ethanol extract with higher level of phenolics – chlorogenic acid and flavonol glucosides was more effective than acetone extract or dry leaves in the lowering of blood glucose, increasing insulin level and markers of antioxidant activity. The results confirm key mechanisms related to the effect of mulberry and its bioactive components on modulation of glucose metabolism through correcting hyperglycaemia, increasing insulin secretion, and improving antioxidant status in STZ-induced non-obese diabetic rat model. Antidiabetic effects exerted by mulberry leaves might depend on the extraction process.
    Journal of Functional Foods 05/2014; 8:9–17. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.02.018 · 4.48 Impact Factor