Mesenchymal stem cells protect NOD mice from diabetes by inducing regulatory T cells.
ABSTRACT Displaying immunomodulatory capacities, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as beneficial agents for autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of MSCs to prevent autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse model.
Prevention of spontaneous insulitis or of diabetes was evaluated after a single i.v. injection of MSCs in 4-week-old female NOD mice, or following the co-injection of MSCs and diabetogenic T cells in irradiated male NOD recipients, respectively. The frequency of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) cells and Foxp3 mRNA levels in the spleen of male NOD recipients were also quantified. In vivo cell homing was assessed by monitoring 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labelled T cells or MSCs. In vitro, cell proliferation and cytokine production were assessed by adding graded doses of irradiated MSCs to insulin B9-23 peptide-specific T cell lines in the presence of irradiated splenocytes pulsed with the peptide.
MSCs reduced the capacity of diabetogenic T cells to infiltrate pancreatic islets and to transfer diabetes. This protective effect was not associated with the modification of diabetogenic T cell homing, but correlated with a preferential migration of MSCs to pancreatic lymph nodes. While injection of diabetogenic T cells resulted in a decrease in levels of FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells, this decrease was inhibited by MSC co-transfer. Moreover, MSCs were able to suppress both allogeneic and insulin-specific proliferative responses in vitro. This suppressive effect was associated with the induction of IL10-secreting FOXP3(+) T cells.
MSCs prevent autoimmune beta cell destruction and subsequent diabetes by inducing regulatory T cells. MSCs may thus offer a novel cell-based approach for the prevention of autoimmune diabetes and for islet cell transplantation.
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been recently shown to inhibit T-cell proliferation to polyclonal stimuli. We characterized the effect of MSCs of bone marrow origin on the T-cell response of naive and memory T cells to their cognate antigenic epitopes. The immune response to murine male transplantation antigens, HY, was selected because the peptide identity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction of the immunodominant epitopes are known. C57BL/6 female mice immunized with male cells were the source of memory T cells, whereas C6 mice transgenic for HY-specific T-cell receptor provided naive T cells. Responder cells were stimulated in vitro with male spleen cells or HY peptides in the presence or absence of MSCs. MSCs inhibited HY-specific naive and memory T cells in a dose-dependent fashion and affected cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and the number of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing HY peptide-specific T cells. However, the MSC inhibitory effect did not selectively target antigen-reactive T cells. When MSCs were added to the T-cell cultures in a Transwell system or MSCs were replaced by MSC culture supernatant, the inhibitory activity was abrogated. T-cell reactivity was also restored if MSCs were removed from the cultures. The expression of MHC molecules and the presence in culture of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or of CD4(+)/CD25(+) regulatory T cells were not required for MSCs to inhibit. We conclude that MSCs inhibit naive and memory T-cell responses to their cognate antigens. Overall our data suggest that MSCs physically hinder T cells from the contact with APCs in a noncognate fashion.Blood 06/2003; 101(9):3722-9. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of tryptophan, is expressed in certain cells and tissues, particularly in antigen-presenting cells of lymphoid organs and in the placenta. It was shown that IDO prevents rejection of the fetus during pregnancy, probably by inhibiting alloreactive T cells, and it was suggested that IDO-expression in antigen-presenting cells may control autoreactive immune responses. Degradation of tryptophan, an essential amino acid required for cell proliferation, was reported to be the mechanism of IDO-induced T cell suppression. Because we wanted to study the action of IDO-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) on allogeneic T cells, the human IDO gene was inserted into an adenoviral vector and expressed in DCs. Transgenic DCs decreased the concentration of tryptophan, increased the concentration of kynurenine, the main tryptophan metabolite, and suppressed allogeneic T cell proliferation in vitro. Kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, but no other IDO-induced tryptophan metabolites, suppressed the T cell response, the suppressive effects being additive. T cells, once stopped in their proliferation, could not be restimulated. Inhibition of proliferation was likely due to T cell death because suppressive tryptophan catabolites exerted a cytotoxic action on CD3(+) cells. This action preferentially affected activated T cells and increased gradually with exposure time. In addition to T cells, B and natural killer (NK) cells were also killed, whereas DCs were not affected. Our findings shed light on suppressive mechanisms mediated by DCs and provide an explanation for important biological processes in which IDO activity apparently is increased, such as protection of the fetus from rejection during pregnancy and possibly T cell death in HIV-infected patients.Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2002; 196(4):447-57. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Both human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G and indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) are key molecules involved in immune tolerance. HLA-G is a non-classical HLA class I molecule that can be expressed in both membrane-bound (HLA-G1) and soluble (HLA-G5) forms, both of which exhibit tolerogenic properties via interaction with inhibitory receptors present on natural killer (NK) cells, T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC). IDO is an enzyme that acts by depleting the surrounding microenvironment of the essential amino acid, tryptophan, thereby inhibiting T-cell proliferation. Our present study was aimed at analysing the potential link that may exist between IDO and HLA-G. Our results showed that during allogeneic reactions, soluble HLA-G expression was not regulated by the addition of IDO substrate (i.e. tryptophan), metabolite (i.e. kynurenine) or inhibitor (i.e. 1-methyl-tryptophan), that IDO activity was not altered by HLA-G5 treatment, and that HLA-G5-mediated inhibition of the T-cell alloproliferative response was neither affected by the presence of tryptophan and kynurenine nor reversed after IDO activity blockage, demonstrating that HLA-G5 can exert its function in the absence of functional IDO. Similarly, inhibition of the T-cell alloresponse, induced by HLA-G1-expressing antigen-presenting cells, was not altered by IDO metabolites or inhibitor. Taken together, these findings show that the function and expression of IDO and HLA-G5 are not mutually influenced, but rather inhibit the T-cell alloproliferative response through two independent pathways. IDO and HLA-G are thus complementary for inducing and maintaining immune tolerance in physiological (pregnancy) and pathological (tumour and allograft) situations.Immunology 12/2005; 116(3):297-307. · 3.71 Impact Factor