Mesenchymal stem cells protect NOD mice from diabetes by inducing regulatory T cells.
ABSTRACT Displaying immunomodulatory capacities, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as beneficial agents for autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of MSCs to prevent autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse model.
Prevention of spontaneous insulitis or of diabetes was evaluated after a single i.v. injection of MSCs in 4-week-old female NOD mice, or following the co-injection of MSCs and diabetogenic T cells in irradiated male NOD recipients, respectively. The frequency of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) cells and Foxp3 mRNA levels in the spleen of male NOD recipients were also quantified. In vivo cell homing was assessed by monitoring 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labelled T cells or MSCs. In vitro, cell proliferation and cytokine production were assessed by adding graded doses of irradiated MSCs to insulin B9-23 peptide-specific T cell lines in the presence of irradiated splenocytes pulsed with the peptide.
MSCs reduced the capacity of diabetogenic T cells to infiltrate pancreatic islets and to transfer diabetes. This protective effect was not associated with the modification of diabetogenic T cell homing, but correlated with a preferential migration of MSCs to pancreatic lymph nodes. While injection of diabetogenic T cells resulted in a decrease in levels of FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells, this decrease was inhibited by MSC co-transfer. Moreover, MSCs were able to suppress both allogeneic and insulin-specific proliferative responses in vitro. This suppressive effect was associated with the induction of IL10-secreting FOXP3(+) T cells.
MSCs prevent autoimmune beta cell destruction and subsequent diabetes by inducing regulatory T cells. MSCs may thus offer a novel cell-based approach for the prevention of autoimmune diabetes and for islet cell transplantation.
Article: Mesenchymal stromal cells improve salivary function and reduce lymphocytic infiltrates in mice with Sjögren's-like disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop Sjögren's-like disease (SS-like) with loss of saliva flow and increased lymphocytic infiltrates in salivary glands (SGs). There are recent reports using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic strategy for autoimmune diseases due to their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. This paper proposed a combined immuno- and cell-based therapy consisting of: A) an injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to eradicate autoreactive T lymphocytes, and B) transplantations of MSCs to reselect lymphocytes. The objective of this was to test the effectiveness of CD45(-)/TER119(-) cells (MSCs) in re-establishing salivary function and in reducing the number of lymphocytic infiltrates (foci) in SGs. The second objective was to study if the mechanisms underlying a decrease in inflammation (focus score) was due to CFA, MSCs, or CFA+MSCs combined. Donor MSCs were isolated from bones of male transgenic eGFP mice. Eight week-old female NOD mice received one of the following treatments: insulin, CFA, MSC, or CFA+MSC (combined therapy). Mice were followed for 14 weeks post-therapy. CD45(-)/TER119(-) cells demonstrated characteristics of MSCs as they were positive for Sca-1, CD106, CD105, CD73, CD29, CD44, negative for CD45, TER119, CD11b, had high number of CFU-F, and differentiated into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Both MSC and MSC+CFA groups prevented loss of saliva flow and reduced lymphocytic infiltrations in SGs. Moreover, the influx of T and B cells decreased in all foci in MSC and MSC+CFA groups, while the frequency of Foxp3(+) (T(reg)) cell was increased. MSC-therapy alone reduced inflammation (TNF-α, TGF-β), but the combination of MSC+CFA reduced inflammation and increased the regenerative potential of SGs (FGF-2, EGF). The combined use of MSC+CFA was effective in both preventing saliva secretion loss and reducing lymphocytic influx in salivary glands.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38615. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Multipotent Stromal Cells Alleviate Inflammation, Neuropathology, and Symptoms Associated with Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy in the Twitcher Mouse.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) is a common neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), an enzyme that cleaves galactocerebroside during myelination. Bone marrow transplantation has shown promise when administered to late-onset GLD patients. However, the side effects (e.g., graft versus host disease), harsh conditioning regimens (e.g., myelosuppression), and variable therapeutic effects make this an unsuitable option for infantile GLD patients. We previously reported modest improvements in the twitcher mouse model of GLD after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of a low dose of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs). Goals of this study were to improve bone marrow-derived MSC (BMSC) therapy for GLD by increasing the cell dosage and comparing cell type (e.g., transduced v. native), treatment timing (e.g., single v. weekly), and administration route (e.g., ICV v. intraperitoneal). Neonatal twitcher mice received (1) 2x10(5) BMSCs by ICV injection, (2) 1x10(6) BMSCs by intraperitoneal (IP) injection, (3) weekly IP injections of 1x10(6) BMSCs, or (4) 1x10(6) lentiviral-transduced BMSCs overexpressing GALC (GALC-BMSC) by IP injection. All treated mice lived longer than untreated mice. However, the mice receiving peripheral MSC therapy had improved motor function (e.g., hind limb strength and rearing ability), twitching symptoms, and weight compared to both the untreated and ICV-treated mice. Inflammatory cell, globoid cell, and apoptotic cell levels in the sciatic nerves were significantly decreased as a result of the GALC-BMSC or weekly IP injections. The results of this study indicate a promising future for peripheral MSC therapy as a non-invasive, adjunct therapy for patients affected with GLD.Stem Cells 04/2013; · 7.78 Impact Factor
Diabetes 06/2012; 61(6):1355-6. · 8.29 Impact Factor