This systematic literature review has shown that patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable excess risk for death compared with nonhip fracture/community control populations. The increased mortality risk may persist for several years thereafter, highlighting the need for interventions to reduce this risk.Patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable risk for subsequent osteoporotic fractures and premature death. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify all studies that reported unadjusted and excess mortality rates for hip fracture. Although a lack of consistent study design precluded any formal meta-analysis or pooled analysis of the data, we have shown that hip fracture is associated with excess mortality (over and above mortality rates in nonhip fracture/community control populations) during the first year after fracture ranging from 8.4% to 36%. In the identified studies, individuals experienced an increased relative risk for mortality following hip fracture that was at least double that for the age-matched control population, became less pronounced with advancing age, was higher among men than women regardless of age, was highest in the days and weeks following the index fracture, and remained elevated for months and perhaps even years following the index fracture. These observations show that patients are at increased risk for premature death for many years after a fragility-related hip fracture and highlight the need to identify those patients who are candidates for interventions to reduce their risk.
"Medical records were scrutinised for general complications during the first six months and for local complications during the first year after surgery. The shorter time frame for general complications was chosen to identify events with a plausible relation to the hip fracture, in combination with the known increased risk of death during the first six months post fracture . Only complications leading to contact with the hospital were registered; i.e. simple falls or complications treated by general practitioners were not included. "
"Hip fractures are associated with increased mortality in both women and men (Roberts and Goldacre 2003, Haleem et al. 2008, Abrahamsen et al. 2009, Hindmarsh et al. 2009, Haentjens et al. 2010, Mundi et al. 2014), as are osteoporotic vertebral fractures (van Staa et al. 2001, O'Neill and Roy 2005, Harris et al. 2010). The influence of upper extremity fracture on mortality is far less studied, and the findings reported have been inconsistent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose — Increased mortality after hip fracture is well documented. The mortality after hospitalization for upper extremity fracture is unknown, even though these are common injuries. Here we determined mortality after hospitalization for upper extremity fracture in patients aged ≥16 years.
Patients and methods — We collected data about the diagnosis code (ICD10), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 7 additional characteristics of 5,985 patients admitted to the trauma ward of Central Finland Hospital between 2002 and 2008. During the study, 929 women and 753 men sustained an upper extremity fracture. The patients were followed up until the end of 2012. Mortality rates were calculated using data on the population at risk.
Results — By the end of follow-up (mean duration 6 years), 179 women (19%) and 105 men (14%) had died. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all patients was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4–1.7). The SMR was higher for men (2.1, CI: 1.7–2.5) than for women (1.3, CI: 1.1–1.5) (p < 0.001). The SMR decreased with advancing age, and the mortality rate was highest for men with humerus fractures.
Interpretation — In men, the risk of death related to proximal humerus fracture was even higher than that reported previously for hip fracture. Compared to the general population, the SMR was double for humerus fracture patients, whereas wrist fracture had no effect on mortality.
"Males had higher relative mortality than females. Several studies reported in a 2008 review confirm that this higher mortality diminishes in older patients . Although age-standardised death rates in this study tended to be higher for men for at least 4 years, we could not confirm that the degree of excess mortality was greater for men. "
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.