This systematic literature review has shown that patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable excess risk for death compared with nonhip fracture/community control populations. The increased mortality risk may persist for several years thereafter, highlighting the need for interventions to reduce this risk.Patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable risk for subsequent osteoporotic fractures and premature death. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify all studies that reported unadjusted and excess mortality rates for hip fracture. Although a lack of consistent study design precluded any formal meta-analysis or pooled analysis of the data, we have shown that hip fracture is associated with excess mortality (over and above mortality rates in nonhip fracture/community control populations) during the first year after fracture ranging from 8.4% to 36%. In the identified studies, individuals experienced an increased relative risk for mortality following hip fracture that was at least double that for the age-matched control population, became less pronounced with advancing age, was higher among men than women regardless of age, was highest in the days and weeks following the index fracture, and remained elevated for months and perhaps even years following the index fracture. These observations show that patients are at increased risk for premature death for many years after a fragility-related hip fracture and highlight the need to identify those patients who are candidates for interventions to reduce their risk.
"Medical records were scrutinised for general complications during the first six months and for local complications during the first year after surgery. The shorter time frame for general complications was chosen to identify events with a plausible relation to the hip fracture, in combination with the known increased risk of death during the first six months post fracture . Only complications leading to contact with the hospital were registered; i.e. simple falls or complications treated by general practitioners were not included. "
"Males had higher relative mortality than females. Several studies reported in a 2008 review confirm that this higher mortality diminishes in older patients . Although age-standardised death rates in this study tended to be higher for men for at least 4 years, we could not confirm that the degree of excess mortality was greater for men. "
"Although studies have consistently reported significant short-term excess mortality after hip fractures [1,14-18,33-35], reports of long-term excess mortality have widely varied. Some studies that adjusted only for age and sex reported hip fracture was a significant risk factor for long-term excess mortality, but their conclusions may be biased because of the absence of adjustment for other potential risk factors [7,12,17,33]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Hip fracture has a high mortality rate, but the actual level of long-term excess mortality and its impact on population-wide mortality remains controversial. The present prospective study investigated short- and long-term excess mortality after hip fractures with adjustment of other risk factors. We calculated the population attributable risk proportion (PARP) to assess the impact of each risk factor on excess mortality.
We recruited 217 elders with hip fractures and 215 age- and sex-matched patients without fractures from the geriatric department of the same hospital. The mean follow-up time was 46.1 months (range: 35 to 57 months). We recorded data on 55 covariates, including baseline details about health, function, and bone mineral density. We used the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to analyze hazard ratios (HRs) of short-term (<12 months follow-up) and long-term (≧12 months follow-up) excess mortality for each covariate and calculated their PARP.
Patients with hip fractures had a higher short-term mortality than non-fractured patients, and the long-term excess mortality associated with hip fracture remained high. The significant risk factors for short-term mortality were hip fracture, comorbidities, and lower (below cutoff) Mini Mental State Examination score with HRs of 2.4, 2.3, and 2.3, respectively. Their PARPs were 44.7%, 38.1%, and 34.3%, respectively. The significant risk factors for long-term mortality were hip fracture (HR: 2.7; PARP: 48.0%), lower T-score (HR: 3.3; PARP: 36.2%), lower body mass index (HR: 2.5; PARP: 42.8%), comorbidities (HR: 2.1; PARP: 34.8%), difficulty in activities of daily living (HR: 1.9; PARP: 31.8%), and smoking (HR: 2.5; PARP: 19.2%).
After comprehensive adjustment, hip fracture was a significant risk factor and contributed the most to long-term as well as short-term excess mortality. Its adequate prevention and treatment should be targeted.
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