Effects of Form Deprivation on Peripheral Refractions and Ocular Shape in Infant Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

College of Optometry and.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (Impact Factor: 3.4). 06/2009; 50(9):4033-44. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.08-3162
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine whether visual experience can alter ocular shape and peripheral refractive error pattern, the authors investigated the effects of form deprivation on refractive development in infant rhesus monkeys.
Monocular form deprivation was imposed in 10 rhesus monkeys by securing diffuser lenses in front of their treated eyes between 22 +/- 2 and 163 +/- 17 days of age. Each eye's refractive status was measured longitudinally by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at 15 degrees intervals along the horizontal meridian to eccentricities of 45 degrees . Control data for peripheral refraction were obtained from the nontreated fellow eyes and six untreated monkeys. Near the end of the diffuser-rearing period, the shape of the posterior globe was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Central axial dimensions were also determined by A-scan ultrasonography.
Form deprivation produced interocular differences in central refractive errors that varied between +2.69 and -10.31 D (treated eye-fellow eye). All seven diffuser-reared monkeys that developed at least 2.00 D of relative central axial myopia also showed relative hyperopia in the periphery that increased in magnitude with eccentricity. Alterations in peripheral refraction were highly correlated with eccentricity-dependent changes in vitreous chamber depth and the shape of the posterior globe.
Like humans with myopia, monkeys with form-deprivation myopia exhibit relative peripheral hyperopia and eyes that are less oblate and more prolate. Thus, in addition to producing central refractive errors, abnormal visual experience can alter the shape of the posterior globe and the pattern of peripheral refractive errors in infant primates.

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Available from: Kurt Hermann Bockhorst, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "The potential relevance of relative peripheral optical defocus and image quality on the emmetropization mechanism has been a matter of interest among scientists. Evidence suggests that hyperopic defocus in the peripheral retina is associated with myopic progression in animals [1]. In human eyes, several studies have shown that in myopes, the relative peripheral refraction tended to be hyperopic [2] [3] [4] and helped to explain the progression in myopia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate the performance of two experimental contact lenses (CL) designed to induce relative peripheral myopic defocus in myopic eyes. Methods Ten right eyes of 10 subjects were fitted with three different CL: a soft experimental lens (ExpSCL), a rigid gas permeable experimental lens (ExpRGP) and a standard RGP lens made of the same material (StdRGP). Central and peripheral refraction was measured using a Grand Seiko open-field autorefractometer across the central 60° of the horizontal visual field. Ocular aberrations were measured with a Hartman-Shack aberrometer, and monocular contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was measured with a VCTS6500 without and with the three contact lenses. Results Both experimental lenses were able to increase significantly the relative peripheral myopic defocus up to −0.50 D in the nasal field and −1.00 D in the temporal field (p < 0.05). The ExpRGP induced a significantly higher myopic defocus in the temporal field compared to the ExpSCL. ExpSCL induced significantly lower levels of Spherical-like HOA than ExpRGP for the 5 mm pupil size (p < 0.05). Both experimental lenses kept CSF within normal limits without any statistically significant change from baseline (p > 0.05). Conclusions RGP lens design seems to be more effective to induce a significant myopic change in the relative peripheral refractive error. Both lenses preserve a good visual performance. The worsened optical quality observed in ExpRGP was due to an increased coma-like and spherical-like HOA. However, no impact on the visual quality as measured by CSF was observed.
    Contact Lens & Anterior Eye 09/2014; 37(6). DOI:10.1016/j.clae.2014.08.001 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, the correlations between vitreous chamber depth and axial length in ametropic eyes were stronger than in emmetropic eyes (Table 4), i.e., the contribution of vitreous chamber depth was larger in ametropic eyes than that of emmetropic eyes, indicating that the vitreous chamber depths in the more myopic eyes were proportionally longer than those in emmetropic eyes, while those of the more hyperopic eyes were proportionally shorter. MRI imaging in monkeys with experimentally induced ametropias confirm this interpretation (Huang et al., 2009). Similar results have been reported in humans. "
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the contribution of individual ocular components to vision-induced ametropias in 210 rhesus monkeys. The primary contribution to refractive-error development came from vitreous chamber depth; a minor contribution from corneal power was also detected. However, there was no systematic relationship between refractive error and anterior chamber depth or between refractive error and any crystalline lens parameter. Our results are in good agreement with previous studies in humans, suggesting that the refractive errors commonly observed in humans are created by vision-dependent mechanisms that are similar to those operating in monkeys. This concordance emphasizes the applicability of rhesus monkeys in refractive-error studies.
    Vision research 08/2010; 50(18):1867-81. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2010.06.008 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    • "More recently, studies on infant monkeys suggest that the peripheral retina can play an important role in modulating overall eye growth and axial refraction (Smith et al., 2005b, 2007a,b; Hung et al., 2008; Smith et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2009). Monkeys raised with diffusers with central apertures allowing up to 37 degrees of unrestricted central vision developed ametropic axial refractive errors, even though central vision was unrestricted (Smith et al., 2005b). "
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that emmetropic and low-hyperopic eyes in which the refractive error in the periphery of the visual field is relatively hyperopic with respect to the axial refraction may be at greater risk of developing myopia than eyes with similar refractions but relatively myopic peripheral refractive errors. The animal and human evidence to support this hypothesis is reviewed. The most persuasive studies are those in which emmetropization has been shown to occur in infant rhesus monkeys with ablated foveas but intact peripheral fields, and the demonstration that, in similar animals, lens-induced relative peripheral hyperopia produces central axial myopia. Evidence for emmetropization in animals with severed optic nerves suggests that emmetropization is primarily controlled at the retinal level but that the higher levels of the visual system play a significant role in refining the process: there appear to be no directly equivalent human studies. Since any contribution of the higher centres to the control of refractive development must depend upon the sensitivity to defocus, the results of human studies of the changes in depth-of-focus across the field and of the contribution of the retinal periphery to the accommodation response are discussed. Although peripheral resolution is relatively insensitive to focus, this is not the case for detection. Moreover accommodation occurs to peripheral stimuli out to a field angle of at least 10 deg, and the presence of a peripheral stimulus can influence the accommodation to a central target. Although the basic hypothesis that a relatively hyperopic peripheral refractive error can drive the development of human myopia remains unproven, the available data support the possibility of an interaction between the states of focus on axis and in the periphery.
    Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 07/2010; 30(4):321-38. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2010.00746.x · 2.18 Impact Factor
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