Article

IC97 is a novel intermediate chain of I1 dynein that interacts with tubulin and regulates interdoublet sliding.

Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Molecular biology of the cell (Impact Factor: 5.98). 06/2009; 20(13):3044-54. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E09-04-0276
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Our goal is to understand the assembly and regulation of flagellar dyneins, particularly the Chlamydomonas inner arm dynein called I1 dynein. Here, we focus on the uncharacterized I1-dynein IC IC97. The IC97 gene encodes a novel IC without notable structural domains. IC97 shares homology with the murine lung adenoma susceptibility 1 (Las1) protein--a candidate tumor suppressor gene implicated in lung tumorigenesis. Multiple, independent biochemical assays determined that IC97 interacts with both alpha- and beta-tubulin subunits within the axoneme. I1-dynein assembly mutants suggest that IC97 interacts with both the IC138 and IC140 subunits within the I1-dynein motor complex and that IC97 is part of a regulatory complex that contains IC138. Microtubule sliding assays, using axonemes containing I1 dynein but devoid of IC97, show reduced microtubule sliding velocities that are not rescued by kinase inhibitors, revealing a critical role for IC97 in I1-dynein function and control of dynein-driven motility.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
89 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We highly purified the Chlamydomonas inner-arm dyneins e and c, considered to be single-headed subspecies. These two dyneins reside side-by-side along the peripheral doublet microtubules of the flagellum. Electron microscopic observations and single particle analysis showed that the head domains of these two dyneins were similar, whereas the tail domain of dynein e was short and bent in contrast to the straight tail of dynein c. The ATPase activities, both basal and microtubule-stimulated, of dynein e (kcat = 0.27 s–1 and kcat,MT = 1.09 s–1, respectively) were lower than those of dynein c (kcat = 1.75 s–1 and kcat,MT = 2.03 s–1, respectively). From in vitro motility assays, the apparent velocity of microtubule translocation by dynein e was found to be slow (Vap = 1.2 ± 0.1 μm/s) and appeared independent of the surface density of the motors, whereas dynein c was very fast (Vmax = 15.8 ± 1.5 μm/s) and highly sensitive to decreases in the surface density (Vmin = 2.2 ± 0.7 μm/s). Dynein e was expected to be a processive motor, since the relationship between the microtubule landing rate and the surface density of dynein e fitted well with first-power dependence. To obtain insight into the in vivo roles of dynein e, we measured the sliding velocity of microtubules driven by a mixture of dynein e and c at various ratios. The microtubule translocation by the fast dynein c became even faster in the presence of the slow dynein e, which could be explained by assuming that dynein e does not retard motility of faster dyneins. In flagella, dynein e likely acts as a facilitator by holding adjacent microtubules to aid dynein c’s power stroke.
    Biophysical Journal 05/2014; 106(10):2157–2165. · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is notorious for its paltry responses to first-line therapeutic regimens. In contrast to acquired chemoresistance, little is known about the molecular underpinnings of the intrinsic resistance of chemo-naïve NSCLC. Here we report that intrinsic resistance to paclitaxel in NSCLC occurs at a cell-autonomous level due to the uncoupling of mitotic defects from apoptosis. To identify components that permit escape from mitotic stress-induced death, we employed a genome-wide RNAi-based strategy, which combines a high-throughput toxicity screen with a live-cell imaging platform to measure mitotic fate. This strategy revealed that prolonging mitotic arrest with a small molecule inhibitor of the APC/Cyclosome could sensitize otherwise paclitaxel-resistant NSCLC. We also defined novel roles for CASC1 and TRIM69 in supporting resistance to spindle poisons. CASC1, which is frequently co-amplified with KRAS in lung tumors, is essential for microtubule polymerization and satisfaction of the spindle assembly checkpoint. TRIM69, which associates with spindle poles and promotes centrosomal clustering, is essential for formation of a bipolar spindle. Notably, RNAi-mediated attenuation of CASC1 or TRIM69 was sufficient to inhibit tumor growth in vivo. On the basis of our results, we hypothesize that tumor evolution selects for a permissive mitotic checkpoint, which may promote survival despite chromosome segregation errors. Attacking this adaptation may restore the apoptotic consequences of mitotic damage to permit the therapeutic eradication of drug-resistant cancer cells.
    Cancer Research 05/2014; · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine mechanisms of assembly of ciliary dyneins, we focused on the Chlamydomonas inner dynein arm, I1 dynein, also known as dynein f. I1 dynein assembles in the cytoplasm as a 20S complex similar to the 20S I1 dynein complex isolated from the axoneme. The intermediate chain subunit, IC140 (IDA7), and heavy chains (IDA1, IDA2) are required for 20S I1 dynein preassembly in the cytoplasm. Unlike I1 dynein derived from the axoneme, the cytoplasmic 20S I1 complex will not rebind I1-deficient axonemes in vitro. To test the hypothesis that I1 dynein is transported to the distal tip of the cilia for assembly in the axoneme, we performed cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons formed between wild-type and I1 dynein mutant cells. Rescue of I1 dynein assembly in mutant cilia occurred first at the distal tip and then proceeded toward the proximal axoneme. Notably, in contrast to other combinations, I1 dynein assembly was significantly delayed in dikaryons formed between ida7 and ida3. Furthermore, rescue of I1 dynein assembly required new protein synthesis in the ida7 x ida3 dikaryons. Based on additional observations, we postulate that IDA3 is required for 20S I1 dynein transport. Cytoplasmic complementation in dikaryons using the conditional kinesin-2 mutant, fla10-1 revealed that transport of I1 dynein is dependent on kinesin-2 activity. Thus, I1 dynein complex assembly depends upon IFT for transport to the ciliary distal tip prior to docking in the axoneme. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Cytoskeleton 09/2014; · 2.87 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
37 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014