Cholesterol biosynthesis modulation regulates dengue viral replication

Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 250 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 06/2009; 389(1-2):8-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2009.03.025
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We performed a focused siRNA screen in an A549 dengue type 2 New Guinea C subgenomic replicon cell line (Rluc-replicon) that contains a Renilla luciferase cassette. We found that siRNA mediated knock down of mevalonate diphospho decarboxylase (MVD) inhibited viral replication of the Rluc-replicon and DEN-2 NGC live virus replication in A549 cells. When the Rluc-replicon A459 cells were grown in delipidated media the replicon expression was suppressed and MVD knock down could further sensitize Renilla expression. Hymeglusin and zaragozic acid A could inhibit DEN-2 NGC live virus replication in K562 cells, while lovastatin could inhibit DEN-2 NGC live virus replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Renilla expression could be rescued in fluvastatin treated A549 Rluc-replicon cells after the addition of mevalonate, and partially restored with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, or farnesyl pyrophosphate. Our data suggest genetic and pharmacological modulation of cholesterol biosynthesis can regulate dengue virus replication.


Available from: Joanne Y H Lim, May 23, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Statins are hypolipemiant drugs used for controlling atherogenesis and cardiovascular diseases caused by hypercholesterolemia. Recently, several pleiotropic effects of statins have been reported, whereas dependent or independent of downregulating cholesterol synthesis; these effects range from immune response modulation to inhibition of the infection and viral replication. The antiretroviral therapy against HIV inhibits viral replication in infected cells, decreasing to undetectable levels the number of viral RNA copies in plasma. Consequently, there is an increase in circulating CD4+ T-cell count, and a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections and mortality. However, the cost and complexity of antiretroviral regimens, the frequent side effects and the emergence of resistant strains, indicate the need of new approaches for HIV infection. Since HIV virions require of cholesterol in their envelope and the integrity of host membrane lipid rafts, in order to infect target cells and to perform several steps of their replication cycle, it has been proposed that the use of statins in HIV-1 infected patients can be an effective alternative to help control this infection. The anti-HIV activity of statins is not directed against viral proteins, which are highly variable due to viral mutations, but instead it focuses on cellular targets blocking their infection and regulating their functional responses. From this point of view, statins could avoid the emergence of resistant viral strains and intervene in the modulation of the highly altered immune responses.
    06/2011; 22(2). DOI:10.1016/S0123-9392(11)70750-0
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