Variety enhances food intake in humans: role of sensory-specific satiety.
ABSTRACT Twenty-one subjects were studied to evaluate the effect of renewal of sensory stimulations of previously eaten foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake. The subjects ate French fries then brownie cakes ad libitum in three situations: "monotonous" - fries then brownies were consumed alone; "simultaneous" - condiments (ketchup and mayonnaise for the fries, vanilla cream and whipped cream for the brownies) were added during intakes; "successive" - after intake of fries alone, ketchup then mayonnaise were available with fries and, after intake of brownies alone, vanilla cream then whipped cream were offered with brownies. The quantities eaten in the "simultaneous" and "successive" situations were higher (p<0.001) than those in the "monotonous" one (1485+/-582 and 1682+/-777 kcal vs 1195+/-552 kcal, respectively). In the "successive" situation, hedonic ratings for fries diminished during intake but increased after the introduction of ketchup, leading to additional intake of fries. Similarly, hedonic ratings for brownies diminished during intake and increased after the introduction of vanilla cream leading to additional brownie intake (mayonnaise and whipped cream had no significant effect). Food variety, obtained by adding condiments can increase food intake in the short term. The mechanism by which food consumption is increased after the addition of condiments is introduced is at least partly related to the attenuation of sensory-satiety for a given food.
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ABSTRACT: Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is a significantly greater pleasantness decline for a consumed (Eaten) food, than foods that are tasted but not consumed (Uneaten). SSS occurs during consumption, reaches optimal magnitude immediately afterwards, and returns to baseline within two to three hours. The phenomenon is dependent on the sensory properties, rather than the energy or macronutrient content of the food. To the extent that an Uneaten food shares similar sensory properties with the Eaten food, the Uneaten food may be subject to pleasantness decline: a transfer effect. Repeated exposure to a food stimulus may alter liking in the long-term, through mere exposure, monotony, and dietary learning paradigms resulting in an association between the novel target food and either a known food stimulus, or a consequence of consumption. Novel foods are more susceptible to these effects than familiar foods, for which learned associations may have already formed. Repeated consumption alone does not modulate SSS, but to date such studies have not tested novel foods. Through six experiments this research explores the influences of long-term pleasantness changes of novel foods and the number and type of Uneaten foods present during SSS testing, on the magnitude of SSS for snack foods. While no evidence of mere exposure or dietary learning was found, and in some instances experiments failed to induce SSS, these negative results are likely due to methodological, and sometimes procedural issues in the design and conduct of experimental testing. Findings revealed SSS to be vulnerable to a number of procedural and methodological factors, such as: portion size; baseline novelty and pleasantness ratings; hunger; perceived ambiguity of measurement scales; and expectations raised by the type and number of Uneaten foods present during testing12/2014, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Professor Martin Yeomans
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ABSTRACT: The sensory-affective attributes of beverages have an important influence on a given intake and successive consumptions because of sensory-specific satiety (SSS; defined as a decrease in pleasantness ratings of a food eaten relative to uneaten foods). No studies have, however, investigated how multiple sessions of SSS for familiar drinks over a period of several days up to a week may change their pleasantness and how these hedonic-related judgments are affected by the context during SSS testing. With twenty-six participants, the present study explored the medium lasting and contextual effects of repeated SSS sessions for a bitter-sweet infusion on olfactory and flavour pleasantness over the course of three exposures in either a laboratory or a cafeteria setting. The results showed olfactory and flavour SSS for the infusion following each consumption in both the artificial and the natural setting. More interesting, despite the failure to detect medium-term SSS (i.e., a greater decrease in pleasantness ratings of a food eaten relative to uneaten foods after repeated SSS sessions over several days as compared to the first SSS session), a contextual modulation of olfactory SSS was observed with a lesser overall magnitude in the cafeteria compared to the laboratory setting. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of eating location on the development of satiation and the differential contextual sensitivity of SSS for orthonasal odours and flavours has not been reported previously. The implications of potential environmental control of SSS are considered in this study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Physiology & Behavior 12/2014; 140. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.12.035 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted to assess how diners' taste evaluations change based on how much they paid for an all-you-can-eat (AYCE) buffet. Diners at an AYCE restaurant were either charged $4 or $8 for an Italian lunch buffet. Their taste evaluation of each piece of pizza consumed was taken along with other measures of behavior and self-perceptions. Their ratings were analyzed using 2 × 3 mixed design analysis of variance (ANOVA). Diners who paid $4 for their buffet rated their initial piece of pizza as less tasty, less satisfactory and less enjoyable. A downward trend was exhibited for each of these measures with each additional piece (P = 0.02). Those who paid $8 did not experience the same decrement in taste, satisfaction and enjoyment. Paying less for an AYCE experience may face the unintended consequence of food that is both less enjoyable and rapidly declining in taste and enjoyability. In a sense, AYCE customers get what they pay for.Practical ApplicationsThis study demonstrates that when eating in a less expensive all-you-can-eat (AYCE) buffet, people find the food less tasty. Such a consequence means a less enjoyable experience for the consumers, which may have implications for repeat purchase. By employing a low-price strategy, AYCE restaurants can attract the initial business of customers. However, these customers may end up evaluating the food unfavorably. As a result, the low-price strategy may not be as profitable in the long term. This study has implications for both consumers and restaurants.Journal of Sensory Studies 10/2014; 29(5). DOI:10.1111/joss.12117 · 2.58 Impact Factor