Variety enhances food intake in humans: Role of sensory-specific satiety
ABSTRACT Twenty-one subjects were studied to evaluate the effect of renewal of sensory stimulations of previously eaten foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake. The subjects ate French fries then brownie cakes ad libitum in three situations: "monotonous" - fries then brownies were consumed alone; "simultaneous" - condiments (ketchup and mayonnaise for the fries, vanilla cream and whipped cream for the brownies) were added during intakes; "successive" - after intake of fries alone, ketchup then mayonnaise were available with fries and, after intake of brownies alone, vanilla cream then whipped cream were offered with brownies. The quantities eaten in the "simultaneous" and "successive" situations were higher (p<0.001) than those in the "monotonous" one (1485+/-582 and 1682+/-777 kcal vs 1195+/-552 kcal, respectively). In the "successive" situation, hedonic ratings for fries diminished during intake but increased after the introduction of ketchup, leading to additional intake of fries. Similarly, hedonic ratings for brownies diminished during intake and increased after the introduction of vanilla cream leading to additional brownie intake (mayonnaise and whipped cream had no significant effect). Food variety, obtained by adding condiments can increase food intake in the short term. The mechanism by which food consumption is increased after the addition of condiments is introduced is at least partly related to the attenuation of sensory-satiety for a given food.
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- "Offering a variety of foods in a meal consistently increases intake (Brondel et al., 2009; Hetherington, 1996; Sørensen, Møller, Flint, Martens, & Raben, 2003), the more different the foods are the greater the enhancement (Rolls et al., 1981), and desserts rekindle appetite when a person is presented with foods that differ from the appetizer and main courses (Remick, "
ABSTRACT: We contend that palates link herbivores and humans with landscapes and consider how these relationships have changed historically. An attuned palate, which enables herbivores to meet needs for nutrients and self-medicate to rectify maladies, evolves from three interrelated processes: flavor-feedback associations, availability of phytochemically rich foods, and learning in utero and early in life to eat nourishing combinations of foods. That occurs when wild or domestic herbivores forage on phytochemically rich landscapes, is less common when domestic herbivores forage on monoculture pastures, is close to zero for herbivores in feedlots, and is increasingly rare for people who forage in modern food outlets. Unlike our ancestors, the palates of many individuals are no longer linked in healthy ways with landscapes. Industrial farming and selection for yield, appearance, and transportability diminished the flavor, phytochemical richness, and nutritive value of fruits and vegetables for humans. Phytochemically impoverished pastures and feedlot diets can adversely affect the health of livestock and the flavor and nutritive value of meat and milk products for humans. While flavors of produce, meat, and dairy have become blander, processed foods have become more desirable as people have learned to link synthetic flavors with feedback from energy-rich compounds that obscure nutritional sameness and diminish health. Thus, the roles plants and animals once played in nutrition have been usurped by processed foods that are altered, fortified, and enriched in ways that can adversely affect appetitive states and food preferences. The need to amend foods, and to take nutrient supplements, could be reduced by creating phytochemically rich plants and herbivores and by creating cultures that know how to combine foods into meals that nourish and satiate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Appetite 08/2015; in press. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2015.08.004 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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- "Research investigating the effects of meal variety has tended to concentrate on the physiological and psychological processes that promote meal termination (e.g., sensory-specific satiety (Brondel et al., 2009; Raynor & Epstein, 2001; Rolls et al., 1981; Rolls, Van Duijvenvoorde, & Rolls, 1984). However, recent research suggests that meal size is very often planned, and therefore determined, in advance of eating (Fay et al., 2011; Hinton et al., 2013). "
ABSTRACT: Meal variety has been shown to increase energy intake in humans by an average of 29%. Historically, research exploring the mechanism underlying this effect has focused on physiological and psychological processes that terminate a meal (e.g., sensory-specific satiety). We sought to explore whether meal variety stimulates intake by influencing pre-meal planning. We know that individuals use prior experience with a food to estimate the extent to which it will deliver fullness. These ‘expected satiation’ judgments may be straightforward when only one meal component needs to be considered but it remains unclear how prospective satiation is estimated when a meal comprises multiple items. We hypothesised that people simplify the task by using a heuristic, or ‘cognitive shortcut.’ Specifically, as within-meal variety increases, expected satiation tends to be based on the perceived volume of food(s) rather than on prior experience. In each trial, participants (N = 68) were shown a plate of food with six buffet food items. Across trials the number of different foods varied in the range one to six. In separate tasks, the participants provided an estimate of their combined expected satiation and volume. When meal variety was high, judgments of perceived volume and expected satiation ‘converged.’ This is consistent with a common underlying response strategy. By contrast, the low variety meals produced dissociable responses, suggesting that judgments of expected satiation were not governed solely by perceived volume. This evidence for a ‘volume heuristic’ was especially clear in people who were less familiar with the meal items. Together, these results are important because they expose a novel process by which meal variety might increase food intake in humans.Appetite 01/2015; 89. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2015.01.010 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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- "An approach that supports the distinction between short-and medium-to long-term SSS comes from habituation, a mechanism generally proposed for SSS   that presents short as well as long forms including long-term habituation to food  . Taking into account associative theories of habituation, some hypotheses for SSS have been recently confirmed including, among others, stimulus specificity  and dishabituation   as new food can disrupt the development of SSS if it has not been completely established . For our purposes, if, for instance, medium-to long-term SSS is due to long-term hedonic habituation, one should expect repetitive food offerings to result in a decrease in hedonic response that lasts for days or weeks, i.e. more rapid rehabituation and/or lower initial or average responses and/or less frequent responses than baseline . "
ABSTRACT: The sensory-affective attributes of beverages have an important influence on a given intake and successive consumptions because of sensory-specific satiety (SSS; defined as a decrease in pleasantness ratings of a food eaten relative to uneaten foods). No studies have, however, investigated how multiple sessions of SSS for familiar drinks over a period of several days up to a week may change their pleasantness and how these hedonic-related judgments are affected by the context during SSS testing. With twenty-six participants, the present study explored the medium lasting and contextual effects of repeated SSS sessions for a bitter-sweet infusion on olfactory and flavour pleasantness over the course of three exposures in either a laboratory or a cafeteria setting. The results showed olfactory and flavour SSS for the infusion following each consumption in both the artificial and the natural setting. More interesting, despite the failure to detect medium-term SSS (i.e., a greater decrease in pleasantness ratings of a food eaten relative to uneaten foods after repeated SSS sessions over several days as compared to the first SSS session), a contextual modulation of olfactory SSS was observed with a lesser overall magnitude in the cafeteria compared to the laboratory setting. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of eating location on the development of satiation and the differential contextual sensitivity of SSS for orthonasal odours and flavours has not been reported previously. The implications of potential environmental control of SSS are considered in this study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Physiology & Behavior 12/2014; 140. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.12.035 · 2.98 Impact Factor