Article

Tropheryma whipplei infection.

Department of Medicine (Gastroenterology), University of British Columbia Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver V6T 1W5, Canada.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.43). 06/2009; 15(17):2078-80. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.15.2078
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Whipple's disease was initially described in 1907. Over the next century, the clinical and pathological features of this disorder have been better appreciated. Most often, weight loss, diarrhea, abdominal and joint pain occur. Occasionally, other sites of involvement have been documented, including isolated neurological disease, changes in the eyes and culture-negative endocarditis. In the past decade, the responsible organism Tropheryma whipplei has been cultivated, its genome sequenced and its antibiotic susceptibility defined. Although rare, it is a systemic infection that may mimic a wide spectrum of clinical disorders and may have a fatal outcome. If recognized, prolonged antibiotic therapy may be a very successful form of treatment.

0 Followers
 · 
155 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Treatment has been historically defined to include a low fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation that leads to portal venous rather than lacteal uptake. A number of other pharmacological measures have been reported or proposed but these are largely anecdotal. Finally, rare reports of localized surgical resection of involved areas of small intestine have been described but follow-up in these cases is often limited.
    02/2011; 3(2):19-23. DOI:10.4251/wjgo.v3.i2.19
  • Source
    Neurologia 06/2011; 28(1). DOI:10.1016/j.nrleng.2011.04.007 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that extended intravenous antibiotic therapy is associated with low morbidity and no mortality in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease. In this study, we evaluated the benefit of extended intravenous antibiotic therapy in patients with symptoms of neurologic Lyme disease. Patients with significant neurologic symptoms and positive testing for Borrelia burgdorferi were treated with intravenous antibiotics, and biweekly evaluation of symptom severity was performed using a six-level ordinal scale. Four symptoms were selected a priori as primary outcome measures in the study, ie, fatigue, cognition, myalgias, and arthralgias. Patients were placed into five groups according to time on treatment (1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-24, and 25-52 weeks), and changes in the primary symptoms as a function of time on treatment were analyzed using a mixed-effects proportional odds model. Among 158 patients with more than one follow-up visit who were monitored for up to 1 year, there were on average 6.7 visits per person (median 5, range 2-24). The last follow-up day was on average 96 days after enrollment (median 69, range 7-354 days), corresponding to the length of antibiotic therapy. Each primary symptom was significantly improved at one or more time points during the study. For cognition, fatigue, and myalgias, the greatest improvement occurred in patients on the longest courses of treatment (25-52 weeks) with odds ratios (OR) for improvement of 1.97 (P = 0.02), 2.22 (P < 0.01), and 2.08 (P = 0.01), respectively. In contrast, arthralgias were only significantly improved during the initial 1-4 weeks of therapy (OR: 1.57, P = 0.04), and the beneficial effect of longer treatment did not reach statistical significance for this symptom. Prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy is associated with improved cognition, fatigue, and myalgias in patients referred for treatment of neurologic Lyme disease. Treatment for 25-52 weeks may be necessary to obtain symptomatic improvement in these patients.
    International Journal of General Medicine 09/2011; 4:639-46. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S23829
Show more

Preview

Download
4 Downloads
Available from