The Lymph Node Ratio is the Strongest Prognostic Factor after Resection of Pancreatic Cancer

Department of Surgery, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Str. 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.8). 05/2009; 13(7):1337-44. DOI: 10.1007/s11605-009-0919-2
Source: PubMed


Introduction Survival after surgery of pancreatic cancer is still poor, even after curative resection. Some prognostic factors like the status of the resection margin, lymph node (LN) status, or tumor grading have been identified. However, only few data have been published regarding the prognostic influence of the LN ratio (number of LN involved to number of examined LN). We, therefore, evaluated potential prognostic factors in 182 patients after resection of pancreatic cancer including assessment of LN ratio. Methods Since 1994, 204 patients underwent pancreatic resection for ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Survival was evaluated in 182 patients with complete follow-up evaluations. Of those 182 patients, 88% had cancer of the pancreatic head, 5% of the body, and 7% of the pancreatic tail. Patients underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (85%), distal resection (12%), or total pancreatectomy (3%). Survival was analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier and Cox methods. Results In all 204 resected patients, operative mortality was 3.9% (n = 8). In the 182 patients with follow-up, 70% had free resection margins, 62% had G1- or G2-classified tumors, and 70% positive LN. Median tumor size was 30 (7–80) mm. The median number of examined LN was 16 and median number of involved LN 1 (range 0–22). Median LN ratio was 0.1 (0–0.79). Cumulative 5-year survival (5-year SV) in all patients was 15%. In univariate analysis, a LN ratio ≥ 0.2 (5-year SV 6% vs. 19% with LN ratio p = 0.003), LN ratio ≥ 0.3 (5-year SV 0% vs. 18% with LN ratio p p p p p p p Conclusions Not the lymph node involvement per se but especially the LN ratio is an independent prognostic factor after resection of pancreatic cancers. In our series, the LN ratio was even the strongest predictor of survival. The routine estimation of the LN ratio may be helpful not only for the individual prediction of prognosis but also for the indication of adjuvant therapy and herein related outcome and therapy studies.

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    • "Resection margins and lymph node status were the most powerful prognostic factors for survival [35]. The risk of tumor spread in the duodenal resection margin is rare. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the long-term survival, mortality, morbidity and the operation-related events in patients with periampullary and pancreatic carcinoma undergoing pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) and pylorus-resecting pancreaticoduodenectomy (PRPD). A systematic search of literature databases (Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) was performed to identify studies. Outcome measures comparing PPPD versus PRPD for periampullary and pancreatic carcinoma were long-term survival, mortality, morbidity (overall morbidity, delayed gastric emptying [DGE], pancreatic fistula, wound infection, postoperative bleeding, biliary leakage, ascites and gastroenterostomy leakage) and operation related events (hospital stays, operating time, intraoperative blood loss and red blood cell transfusions). Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 622 patients were identified and included in the analysis. Among these patients, it revealed no difference in long-term survival between the PPPD and PRPD groups (HR = 0.23, p = 0.11). There was a lower rate of DGE (RR = 2.35, p = 0.04, 95% CI, 1.06-5.21) with PRPD. Mortality, overall morbidity, pancreatic fistula, wound infection, postoperative bleeding, biliary leakage, ascites and gastroenterostomy leakage were not significantly different between the groups. PPPDs were performed more quickly than PRPDs (WMD = 53.25 minutes, p = 0.01, 95% CI, 12.53-93.97); and there was less estimated intraoperative blood loss (WMD = 365.21 ml, p = 0.006, 95% CI, 102.71-627.71) and fewer red blood cell transfusions (WMD = 0.29 U, p = 0.003, 95% CI, 0.10-0.48) in patients undergoing PPPD. The hospital stays showed no significant difference. PPPD had advantages over PRPD in operating time, intraoperative blood loss and red blood cell transfusions, but had a significantly higher rate of DGE for periampullary and pancreatic carcinoma. PPPD and PRPD had comparable mortality and morbidity including pancreatic fistulas, wound infections, postoperative bleeding, biliary leakage, ascites and gastroenterostomy leakage. Our conclusions were limited by the available data. Further evaluations of high-quality RCTs are needed.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90316. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090316 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "It has been widely documented in the literature that lymph node status is one of the most important independent prognostic factors of survival, in particular, for resectable cases. Studies have found that the number of positive lymph nodes [27] [28], lymph node ratios (number of lymph nodes involved to number of lymph nodes examined ) [29] [30] [31] [32], and site of lymph node metastases [33] [34] [35] [36] may be more powerful predictors of postoperative survival than simple lymph node status (e.g., negative or positive). A recent surgical study has found that the number of lymph nodes examined affects, albeit differently , the prognostic accuracy of the number of positive nodes and the lymph node ratio [37]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to assess lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LNMRI) in identifying malignant nodal involvement in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 13 patients with known or high index of suspicion of pancreatic cancer and who were scheduled for surgical resection. Protocols included T2*-weighted imaging before and after administration of Ferumoxytol (Feraheme) for the evaluation of lymph node involvement. Eleven of the 13 patients underwent a Whipple procedure and lymph node dissection. Nodes that lacked contrast uptake were deemed malignant, and those that demonstrated homogeneous uptake were deemed benign. A total of 264 lymph nodes were resection, of which 17 were malignant. The sensitivity and specificity of LNMRI was 76.5% and 98.4% at a nodal level and 83.3% and 80% at a patient level. LNMRI demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
    Translational oncology 12/2013; 6(6):670-5. DOI:10.1593/tlo.13400 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Hereby the present study confirms that histopathological differentiation, in contrast to tumor location, is an independent prognostic factor. It also confirms that the lymph node ratio is a stronger independent prognostic marker than N stage, which has been shown for PDAC, AMPAC and DBDAC before [10,11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Periampullary adenocarcinomas comprise pancreatic, distal bile duct, ampullary and duodenal adenocarcinoma. The epithelia of these anatomical structures share a common embryologic origin from the foregut. With steadily increasing numbers of pancreatoduodenectomies over the last decades, pathologists, surgeons and oncologists are more often confronted with the diagnosis of "other than pancreatic" periampullary cancers. The intestinal subtype of ampullary cancer has been shown to correlate with better prognosis. Histological subtype and immunohistochemical staining pattern for CK7, CK20 and CDX2 were assessed for n = 198 cases of pancreatic ductal, distal bile duct, ampullary and duodenal adenocarcinoma with clinical follow-up. Routine pathological parameters were included in survival analysis performed with SPSS 20. In univariate analysis, intestinal subtype was associated with better survival in ampullary, pancreatic ductal and duodenal adenocarcinoma. The intestinal type of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was not associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and could not be reliably diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining pattern alone. Intestinal differentiation and lymph node ratio, but not tumor location were independent predictors of survival when all significant predictor variables from univariate analysis (grade, TNM stage, presence of precursor lesions, surgical margin status, perineural, vascular and lymphatic vessel invasion, CK7 and CDX2 staining pattern) were included in a Cox proportional hazards model. Intestinal type differentiation and lymph node ratio but not tumor location are independent prognostic factors in pooled analysis of periampullary adenocarcinomas. . We conclude that differentiation is more important than tumor location for prognostic stratification in periampullary adenocarcinomas.
    BMC Cancer 09/2013; 13(1):428. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-428 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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