The Lymph Node Ratio is the Strongest Prognostic Factor after Resection of Pancreatic Cancer
ABSTRACT Survival after surgery of pancreatic cancer is still poor, even after curative resection. Some prognostic factors like the status of the resection margin, lymph node (LN) status, or tumor grading have been identified. However, only few data have been published regarding the prognostic influence of the LN ratio (number of LN involved to number of examined LN). We, therefore, evaluated potential prognostic factors in 182 patients after resection of pancreatic cancer including assessment of LN ratio.
Since 1994, 204 patients underwent pancreatic resection for ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Survival was evaluated in 182 patients with complete follow-up evaluations. Of those 182 patients, 88% had cancer of the pancreatic head, 5% of the body, and 7% of the pancreatic tail. Patients underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (85%), distal resection (12%), or total pancreatectomy (3%). Survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox methods.
In all 204 resected patients, operative mortality was 3.9% (n = 8). In the 182 patients with follow-up, 70% had free resection margins, 62% had G1- or G2-classified tumors, and 70% positive LN. Median tumor size was 30 (7-80) mm. The median number of examined LN was 16 and median number of involved LN 1 (range 0-22). Median LN ratio was 0.1 (0-0.79). Cumulative 5-year survival (5-year SV) in all patients was 15%. In univariate analysis, a LN ratio > or = 0.2 (5-year SV 6% vs. 19% with LN ratio < 0.2; p = 0.003), LN ratio > or = 0.3 (5-year SV 0% vs. 18% with LN ratio < 0.3; p < 0.001), a positive resection margin (p < 0.01) and poor differentiation (G3/G4; p < 0.03) were associated with poorer survival. In multivariate analysis, a LN ratio > or = 0.2 (p < 0.02; relative risk RR 1.6), LN ratio > or = 0.3 (p < 0.001; RR 2.2), positive margins (p < 0.02; RR 1.7), and poor differentiation (p < 0.03; RR 1.5) were independent factors predicting a poorer outcome. The conventional nodal status or the number of examined nodes (in all patients and in the subgroups of node positive or negative patients) had no significant influence on survival. Patients with one metastatic LN had the same outcome as patients with negative nodes, but prognosis decreased significantly in patients with two or more LN involved.
Not the lymph node involvement per se but especially the LN ratio is an independent prognostic factor after resection of pancreatic cancers. In our series, the LN ratio was even the strongest predictor of survival. The routine estimation of the LN ratio may be helpful not only for the individual prediction of prognosis but also for the indication of adjuvant therapy and herein related outcome and therapy studies.
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ABSTRACT: To retrospectively analyze factors affecting the long-term survival of patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent pancreatic resection. From January 2000 to December 2011, 195 patients underwent pancreatic resection in our hospital. The prognostic factors after pancreatic resection were analyzed in all 195 patients. After excluding the censored cases within an observational period, the clinicopathological characteristics of 20 patients who survived ≥ 5 (n = 20) and < 5 (n = 76) years were compared. For this comparison, we analyzed the patients who underwent surgery before June 2008 and were observed for more than 5 years. For statistical analyses, the log-rank test was used to compare the cumulative survival rates, and the χ (2) and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the two groups. The Cox-Hazard model was used for a multivariate analysis, and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. A multivariate analysis was conducted on the factors that were significant in the univariate analysis. The median survival for all patients was 27.1 months, and the 5-year actuarial survival rate was 34.5%. The median observational period was 595 d. With the univariate analysis, the UICC stage was significantly associated with survival time, and the CA19-9 ≤ 200 U/mL, DUPAN-2 ≤ 180 U/mL, tumor size ≤ 20 mm, R0 resection, absence of lymph node metastasis, absence of extrapancreatic neural invasion, and absence of portal invasion were favorable prognostic factors. The multivariate analysis showed that tumor size ≤ 20 mm (HR = 0.40; 95%CI: 0.17-0.83, P = 0.012) and negative surgical margins (R0 resection) (HR = 0.48; 95%CI: 0.30-0.77, P = 0.003) were independent favorable prognostic factors. Among the 96 patients, 20 patients survived for 5 years or more, and 76 patients died within 5 years after operation. Comparison of the 20 5-year survivors with the 76 non-survivors showed that lower concentrations of DUPAN-2 (79.5 vs 312.5 U/mL, P = 0.032), tumor size ≤ 20 mm (35% vs 8%, P = 0.008), R0 resection (95% vs 61%, P = 0.004), and absence of lymph node metastases (60% vs 18%, P = 0.036) were significantly associated with the 5-year survival. Negative surgical margins and a tumor size ≤ 20 mm were independent favorable prognostic factors. Histologically curative resection and early tumor detection are important factors in achieving long-term survival.World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2015; 21(1):262-8. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i1.262 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review highlights the rationale for dissection of the 16a2 and 16b1 paraaortic area during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for carcinoma of the head of the pancreas. Recent advances in surgical anatomy of the mesopancreas indicate that the retropancreatic area is not a single entity with well defined boundaries but an anatomical site of embryological fusion of peritoneal layers, and that continuity exists between the neuro lymphovascular adipose tissues of the retropancreatic and paraaortic areas. Recent advances in surgical pathology and oncology indicate that, in pancreatic head carcinoma, the mesopancreatic resection margin is the primary site for R1 resection, and that epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related processes involved in tumor progression may impact on the prevalence of R1 resection or local recurrence rates after R0 surgery. These concepts imply that mesopancreas resection during PD for pancreatic head carcinoma should be extended to the paraaortic area in order to maximize retropancreatic clearance and minimize the likelihood of an R1 resection or the persistence of residual tumor cells after R0 resection. In PD for pancreatic head carcinoma, the rationale for dissection of the paraaortic area is to control the spread of the tumor cells along the mesopancreatic resection margin, rather than to control or stage the nodal spread. Although mesopancreatic resection cannot be considered "complete" or "en bloc", it should be "extended as far as possible" or be "maximal", including dissection of 16a2 and 16b1 paraaortic areas.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Pancreatic carcinoma affecting the uncinate process is a challenging surgical condition. Several considerations affect the management plan, including the need for vascular resection and the ability to achieve a clear margin. Methods: The data of 19 patients who had curative resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process were reviewed. Operative mortality and morbidity, and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated. Results: The study population included 13 male and 6 female patients with a mean age of 55 years. Nine patients (47.4%) had stage I disease, seven patients (36.8%) had stage II disease, and three patients (15.8%) had stage III disease. A total of 12 patients had Whipple procedure and 7 patients had total pancreatectomy. In total, there were 9 R0 and 10 R1 resections. Operative mortality rate was 10.5% (2/19), postoperative leakage rate was 21.1% (4/19), and wound sepsis rate was 21.1%. Median DFS was 19.2 months. Survival was superior in the Whipple procedure group than in the total pancreatectomy group (median survival 19 months vs 4 months, respectively). Vascular resection and retroperitoneal safety margin status did not affect disease relapse. Conclusion: Non-metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process should be offered R0 or R1 resection whenever technically feasible.Clinical Medicine Insights: Gastroenterology 01/2015; 8:1-6. DOI:10.4137/CGast.S20650