Antagonism of the mammalian target of rapamycin selectively mediates metabolic effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition and protects human malignant glioma cells from hypoxia-induced cell death
ABSTRACT Although inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor is a plausible therapy for malignant gliomas that, in vitro, enhances apoptosis, the results of clinical trials have been disappointing. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that integrates starvation signals and generates adaptive responses that aim at the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Antagonism of mTOR has been suggested as a strategy to augment the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition by interfering with deregulated signalling cascades downstream of Akt. Here we compared effects of antagonism of mTOR utilizing rapamycin or a small hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to those of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition or combined inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and mTOR in human malignant glioma cells. In contrast to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition, mTOR antagonism neither induced cell death nor enhanced apoptosis induced by CD95 ligand or chemotherapeutic drugs. However, mTOR inhibition mimicked the hypoxia-protective effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition by maintaining adenosine triphosphate levels. These in vitro experiments thus challenge the current view of mTOR as a downstream target of Akt that mediates antiapoptotic stimuli. Under the conditions of the tumour microenvironment, metabolic effects of inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor, Akt and mTOR may adversely affect outcome by protecting the hypoxic tumour cell fraction.
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- "Hypoxia was induced as previously described , . Briefly, 0.1% O2 was induced by incubation in Gas-pak pouches for anaerobic culture (Becton-Dickinson, Heidelberg, Germany) . "
ABSTRACT: B10 is a glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid with promising activity against glioma cells. Lysosomal cell death pathways appear to be essential for its cytotoxicity. We investigated the influence of hypoxia, nutrient deprivation and current standard therapies on B10 cytotoxicity. The human glioma cell lines LN-308 and LNT-229 were exposed to B10 alone or together with irradiation, temozolomide, nutrient deprivation or hypoxia. Cell growth and viability were evaluated by crystal violet staining, clonogenicity assays, propidium iodide uptake and LDH release assays. Cell death was examined using an inhibitor of lysosomal acidification (bafilomycin A1), a cathepsin inhibitor (CA074-Me) and a short-hairpin RNA targeting cathepsin B. Hypoxia substantially enhanced B10-induced cell death. This effect was sensitive to bafilomycin A1 and thus dependent on hypoxia-induced lysosomal acidification. Cathepsin B appeared to mediate cell death because either the inhibitor CA074-Me or cathepsin B gene silencing rescued glioma cells from B10 toxicity under hypoxia. B10 is a novel antitumor agent with substantially enhanced cytotoxicity under hypoxia conferred by increased lysosomal cell death pathway activation. Given the importance of hypoxia for therapy resistance, malignant progression, and as a result of antiangiogenic therapies, B10 might be a promising strategy for hypoxic tumors like malignant glioma.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94921. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094921 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits tumorigenesis and tumor growth in most model systems, an effect mediated in part by its pro-apoptotic activity. We previously showed that trans-10,cis-12 CLA induced apoptosis of p53-mutant TM4t mouse mammary tumor cells through both mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. In the current study, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key player in fatty acid metabolism, in CLA-induced apoptosis in TM4t cells. We found that t10,c12-CLA increased phosphorylation of AMPK, and that CLA-induced apoptosis was enhanced by the AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. The increased AMPK activity was not due to nutrient/energy depletion since ATP levels did not change in CLA-treated cells, and knockdown of the upstream kinase LKB1 did not affect its activity. Furthermore, our data do not demonstrate a role for the AMPK-modulated mTOR pathway in CLA-induced apoptosis. Although CLA decreased mTOR levels, activity was only modestly decreased. Moreover, rapamycin, which completely blocked the activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2, did not induce apoptosis, and attenuated rather than enhanced CLA-induced apoptosis. Instead, the data suggest that CLA-induced apoptosis is mediated by the AMPK-p38 MAPK-Bim pathway: CLA-induced phosphorylation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, and increased expression of Bim, occurred with a similar time course as apoptosis; phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was blocked by compound C; the increased Bim expression was blocked by p38 MAPK siRNA; CLA-induced apoptosis was attenuated by the p38 inhibitor SB-203580 and by siRNAs directed against p38 MAPK or Bim.Cellular Signalling 11/2009; 22(4):590-9. DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2009.11.011 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members suppress both apoptosis and autophagy and are of major importance for therapy resistance of malignant gliomas. To target these molecules, we used BH3 mimetics and analyzed the molecular mechanisms of cell death induced thereby. Glioma cells displayed only limited sensitivity to single-agent treatment with the BH3 mimetics HA14-1, BH3I-2', and ABT-737, whereas the pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor (-)-gossypol efficiently induced cell death. Furthermore, (-)-gossypol potentiated cell death induced by temozolomide (TMZ) in MGMT (O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase)-negative U343 cells and, to a lesser extent, in MGMT-expressing U87 cells. (-)-Gossypol triggered translocation of light chain 3 to autophagosomes and lysosomes and cytochrome c release, but cell death occurred in the absence of lysosomal damage and effector caspase activation. Lentiviral knockdown of Beclin1 and Atg5 in U87, U343, and MZ-54 cells strongly diminished the extent of cell death induced by (-)-gossypol and combined treatment with TMZ, indicating that autophagy contributed to this type of cell death. In contrast, stable knockdown of the endogenous autophagy inhibitor mammalian target of rapamycin increased autophagic cell death. Our data suggest that pan-Bcl-2 inhibitors are promising drugs that induce caspase-independent, autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant malignant glioma cells and augment the action of TMZ. Furthermore, they indicate that efficient killing of glioma cells requires neutralization of Mcl-1.Molecular Cancer Research 07/2010; 8(7):1002-16. DOI:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-09-0562 · 4.38 Impact Factor
Daniel P Brucker