Deficits in ERK and CREB activation in the hippocampus after traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) activates several protein kinase signaling pathways in the hippocampus that are critical for hippocampal-dependent memory formation. In particular, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a protein kinase activated during and necessary for hippocampal-dependent learning, is transiently activated after TBI. However, TBI patients experience hippocampal-dependent cognitive deficits that occur for several months to years after the initial injury. Although basal activation levels of ERK return to sham levels within hours after TBI, we hypothesized that activation of ERK may be impaired after TBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either sham surgery or moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury. At 2, 8, or 12 weeks after surgery, the ipsilateral hippocampi of sham surgery and TBI animals were sectioned into transverse slices. After 2h of recovery in oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid, the hippocampal slices were stimulated with glutamate or KCl depolarization, then analyzed by western blotting for phosphorylated, activated ERK and one of its downstream effectors, the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). We found that activation of ERK (p<0.05) and CREB (p<0.05) after 30s of glutamate stimulation or KCl depolarization was decreased in hippocampal slices from animals at 2, 8, or 12 weeks after TBI as compared to sham animals. Basal levels of phosphorylated or total ERK were not significantly altered at 2, 8, or 12 weeks after TBI, although basal levels of phosphorylated CREB were decreased 12 weeks post-trauma. These results suggest that TBI results in chronic signaling deficits through the ERK-CREB pathway in the hippocampus.
Article: Voluntary exercise following traumatic brain injury: brain-derived neurotrophic factor upregulation and recovery of function.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Voluntary exercise leads to an upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and associated proteins involved in synaptic function. Activity-induced enhancement of neuroplasticity may be considered for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Given that during the first postinjury week the brain is undergoing dynamic restorative processes and energetic changes that may influence the outcome of exercise, we evaluated the effects of acute and delayed exercise following experimental TBI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham or lateral fluid-percussion injury (FPI) and were housed with or without access to a running wheel (RW) from postinjury days 0-6 (acute) or 14-20 (delayed). FPI alone resulted in significantly elevated levels of hippocampal phosphorylated synapsin I and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding-protein (CREB) at postinjury day 7, of which phosphorylated CREB remained elevated at postinjury day 21. Sham and delayed FPI-RW rats showed increased levels of BDNF, following exercise. Exercise also increased phosphorylated synapsin I and CREB in sham rats. In contrast to shams, the acutely exercised FPI rats failed to show activity-dependent BDNF upregulation and had significant decreases of phosphorylated synapsin I and total CREB. Additional rats were cognitively assessed (learning acquisition and memory) by utilizing the Morris water maze after acute or delayed RW exposure. Shams and delayed FPI-RW animals benefited from exercise, as indicated by a significant decrease in the number of trials to criterion (ability to locate the platform in 7 s or less for four consecutive trials), compared with the delayed FPI-sedentary rats. In contrast, cognitive performance in the acute FPI-RW rats was significantly impaired compared with all the other groups. These results suggest that voluntary exercise can endogenously upregulate BDNF and enhance recovery when it is delayed after TBI. However, when exercise is administered to soon after TBI, the molecular response to exercise is disrupted and recovery may be delayed.Neuroscience 02/2004; 125(1):129-39. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Calcium-dependent excitotoxic processes contribute significantly to pathologic responses to traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI causes neuronal depolarization and excessive excitatory neurotransmitter release, which may lead to increases in intracellular calcium levels. However, responses of calcium-dependent enzymes such as protein kinase C (PKC) following TBI are poorly understood. Since PKC plays an important role in signal transduction and maintenance of normal neuronal function, we investigated changes in PKC activity and protein levels following fluid percussion brain injury in rats. We observed a 23.1% increase in PKC activity 1 h postinjury and 80.7% increase in PKC activity 3 h postinjury. There was no statistically significant change in PKC activity 5 min and 24 h after injury. PKC immunolabelling studies detected a significant increase in PKC levels in membrane fractions 3 h but not 1 h after injury. Thus PKC activation is transiently increased following TBI and may play an important role in pathophysiologic responses to TBI.Journal of Neurotrauma 02/1993; 10(3):287-95. · 3.65 Impact Factor
Article: Impaired expression of long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices 4 and 48 h following mild fluid-percussion brain injury in vivo.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of fluid percussion brain injury on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was investigated in hippocampal slices in vitro. Mild to moderate (1.7-2.1 atm) lateral fluid percussion head injury or sham operation was produced in rats 4 or 48 h prior to harvesting brain slices from the ipsilateral hippocampus. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in stratum radiatum of hippocampal subfield CA1 in response to electrical stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals. The initial slope of fEPSPs was used to investigate changes in synaptic strength prior to and following 100 or 200 Hz (1 s) tetanic stimulation. TBI significantly inhibited expression of LTP in hippocampal slices in vitro. Post-tetanus fEPSP slopes increased more than 100% in hippocampal slices from sham-operated animals but less than 50% in slices from rats following TBI. The data suggest that changes in functional synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus may contribute to cognitive disorders associated with TBI (traumatic brain injury). The data also indicate that TBI-induced effects on hippocampal LTP are robust and may be investigated in the hippocampal slice preparation in vitro.Brain Research 04/1998; 785(2):287-92. · 2.73 Impact Factor