Quantitative T2 mapping as a potential marker for the initial assessment of the severity of damage after traumatic brain injury in rat.
ABSTRACT Severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) positively correlates with the risk of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). Studies on post-traumatic epileptogenesis would greatly benefit from markers that at acute phase would reliably predict the extent and severity of histologic brain damage caused by TBI in individual subjects. Currently in experimental models, severity of TBI is determined by the pressure of applied load that does not directly reflect the extent of inflicted brain injury, mortality within experimental population, or impairment in behavioral tests that are laborious to perform. We aimed to compare MRI markers measured at acute post-injury phase to previously used indicators of injury severity in the ability to predict the extent of histologically determined post-traumatic tissue damage. We used lateral fluid-percussion injury model in rat that is a clinically relevant model of closed head injury in humans, and results in PTE in severe cases. Rats (48 injured, 12 controls) were divided into moderate (mTBI) and severe (sTBI) groups according to impact strength. MRI data (T2, T2*, lesion volume) were acquired 3 days post-injury. Motor deficits were analysed using neuroscore (NS) and beam balance (BB) tests 2 and 3 days post-injury, respectively. Histological evaluation of lesion volume (Fluoro-Jade B) was used as the reference outcome measure, and was performed 2 weeks after TBI. From MRI parameters studied, quantitative T2 values of cortical lesion not only correlated with histologic lesion volume (P<0.001, r=0.6, N=34), as well as NS (P<0.01, r=-0.5, N=34) and BB (P<0.01, r=-0.5, N=34) results, but also successfully differentiated animals with mTBI from those with sTBI 70.6 +/- 6.2 6.2 ms vs. 75.9 +/- 2.6 ms, P<0.001). Quantitative T2 of the lesion early after TBI can serve as an indicator of the severity of post-traumatic cortical damage and neuro-motor impairment, and has a potential as a clinical marker for identification of individuals with elevated risk of PTE.
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ABSTRACT: Serial MRI facilitates the in vivo analysis of the intra- and intersubject evolution of traumatic brain injury lesions. Despite the availability of MRI, the natural history of experimental focal contusion lesions in the controlled cortical impact (CCI) rat model has not been well described. We performed CCI on rats and MRI during the acute to chronic stages of cerebral injury to investigate the time course of changes in the brain. Female Wistar rats underwent CCI of their left motor cortex with a flat impact tip driven by an electromagnetic piston. In vivo MRI was performed at 7 T serially over 6 weeks post-CCI. The appearances of CCI-induced lesions and lesion-associated cortical volumes were variable on MRI, with the percentage change in cortical volume of the CCI ipsilateral side relative to the contralateral side ranging from 18% within 2 h of injury on day 0 to a peak of 35% on day 1, and a trough of -28% by week 5/6, with an average standard deviation of ±14% at any given time point. In contrast, the percentage change in cortical volume of the ipsilateral side relative to the contralateral side in control rats was not significant (1 ± 2%). Hemorrhagic conversion within and surrounding the CCI lesion occurred between days 2 and 9 in 45% of rats, with no hemorrhage noted on the initial scan. Furthermore, hemorrhage and hemosiderin within the lesion were positive for Prussian blue and highly autofluorescent on histological examination. Although some variation in injuries may be technique related, the divergence of similar lesions between initial and final scans demonstrates the inherent biological variability of the CCI rat model. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.NMR in Biomedicine 12/2012; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has become an increasing public health concern as subsequent injuries can exacerbate existing neuropathology and result in neurological deficits. This study investigated the temporal development of cortical lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess two mTBIs delivered to opposite cortical hemispheres. The controlled cortical impact model was used to produce an initial mTBI on the right cortex followed by a second injury induced on the left cortex at 3 (rmTBI 3d) or 7 (rmTBI 7d) days later. Histogram analysis was combined with a novel semi-automated computational approach to perform a voxel-wise examination of extravascular blood and edema volumes within the lesion. Examination of lesion volume 1d post last injury revealed increased tissue abnormalities within rmTBI 7d animals compared to other groups, particularly at the site of the second impact. Histogram analysis of lesion T2 values suggested increased edematous tissue within the rmTBI 3d group and elevated blood deposition in the rm TBI 7d animals. Further quantification of lesion composition for blood and edema containing voxels supported our histogram findings, with increased edema at the site of second impact in rmTBI 3d animals and elevated blood deposition in the rmTBI 7d group at the site of the first injury. Histological measurements revealed spatial overlap of regions containing blood deposition and microglial activation within the cortices of all animals. In conclusion, our findings suggest that there is a window of tissue vulnerability where a second distant mTBI, induced 7d after an initial injury, exacerbates tissue abnormalities consistent with hemorrhagic progression.NeuroImage : clinical. 01/2012; 1(1):18-28.
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ABSTRACT: Epilepsy accounts for 0.5% of the global burden of disease, and primary prevention of epilepsy represents one of the three 2007 NINDS Epilepsy Research Benchmarks. In the past decade, efforts to understand and intervene in the process of epileptogenesis have yielded fruitful preventative strategies in animal models.This article reviews the current understanding of epileptogenesis, introduces the concept of a "critical period" for epileptogenesis, and examines strategies for epilepsy prevention in animal models of both acquired and genetic epilepsies. We discuss specific animal models, which may yield important insights into epilepsy prevention including kindling, poststatus epilepticus, prolonged febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, hypoxia, the tuberous sclerosis mouse model, and the WAG/Rij rat model of primary generalized epilepsy. Hopefully, further investigation of antiepileptogenesis in animal models will soon enable human therapeutic trials to be initiated, leading to long-term epilepsy prevention and improved patient quality of life.The Neuroscientist 06/2010; 16(3):253-75. · 5.63 Impact Factor